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# Basics of Input – Output

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Dear Aspirants,

Input Output is a major topic asked in many of the Banking Exams. As many of you would be aware, the mains exam of IBPS PO exam is scheduled for 20th November and you can expect a set of 5 questions from this topic. This topic can be quite easy to attempt and prove to be scoring if you have a fair idea of the basics of this topic. Today we are sharing with you all information about this topic that we hope would be helpful in the upcoming exam.

Let us first understand, what exactly is meant by Machine Input. This is basically a topic of logical reasoning where a set of words, numbers or their combination is given in a particular sequence in various steps. You need to identify the pattern in which the initial input given to you is processed in various steps and then apply the same pattern to the statement in the questions and answer accordingly.

There may be numerous patterns which may be followed while processing a given input. We will now have a look at the most common patterns that you may encounter in the exams.

1. Shifting Pattern –

This is the most common pattern on which most of the questions are based. A particular number or word is shifted from its initial position to usually an extreme end. This shifting may be based on various parameters, for instance in ascending order, descending order, on the basis of vowel/consonant in words or on the basis of odd/even in case of numbers, number of alphabets in the given word etc.

Consider the following example –

Input – 89 bind 32 goal house 61 12 joy

Step I – 12 89 bind 32 goal house 61 joy

Step II – 12 joy 89 bind 32 goal house 61

Step III – 12 joy 32 89 bind goal house 61

Step IV – 12 joy 32 house 89 bind goal 61

Step V – 12 joy 32 house 61 89 bind goal

Step VI – 12 joy 32 house 61 goal 89 bind

Now if you have a look at the above input, you can clearly make out the pattern. Numbers and words are being shifted in alternate steps, numbers in ascending order and alphabets in descending order. In step I, 12 being the smallest number is shifted to the extreme left end while the rest sequence remains same. In step II, joy (alphabet J) being the biggest in the alphabetical order is shifted first. Again in Step III the second smallest number, 32 has been shifted. This process is carried out till all the numbers and alphabets have been arranged in the pattern. Once you have identified the pattern, you can easily arrange the various steps of the input given in question.

Based on the above arrangement, process the given input and answer the number of steps that would be required to complete this arrangement-
Input – 21 victory 11 30 point 64 47 all gone 18 cap

2. Double Shifting –

This pattern is same as the shifting pattern, the only difference being, shifting takes place at both the ends of the input. This shifting may take place simultaneously in the same step or in alternate steps, Consider the following example –

Input : more 40 great and 60 74 will

Step I: 74 more 40 great 60 will and

Step II: 74 60 more 40 will and great

Step III: 74 60 40 will and great more

Step IV: 74 60 40 and great more will

Now, if you observe the above arrangement, you can easily make out the changes at both the ends. 74 being the largest number is shifted to the extreme left end and ‘and’ being the smallest in alphabetical order is shifted to the extreme left end. The shifting at both ends here takes place in a single step.

Things to remember while solving these questions –

• Go through at least first 2-3 steps before deciding the pattern of the sequence. Do go through the last step of the input as well. This will give you some idea of the pattern in which the given output has been processed.
• Make sure that you observe both the ends of the arrangement while identifying the pattern.
• While writing down the different steps of the arrangement, try to use only the first alphabets in case of words in order to save time(Make sure that only a single word is present with the same alphabet when you use this approach). For instance –
42 demand earning 64 6 element 9 them output 81 summer 8 power 4 jungle
Instead of writing each word every time in different steps, you can simply write –
42 d ea 64 6 el 9 t o 81 s 8 p 4 j
• Try to label the order/ranking of the number or the alphabet above them in the first step, so that you have a clear idea of the order in which you need to shift them.
• Apart from the common patterns, you may also face patterns based on arithmetic operations on numbers. Exercise caution while you attempt such patterns.
• Make sure that you go through the questions as well before writing down different steps of the input. Proceed till the last step only if it is required in the question.
• Calmly observe the given arrangement. You’ll be able to make out the pattern easily with practice.

Now that you have the basic idea of this topic, try to identify the pattern of the given arrangement.

Input – 52 peak 91 snow freeze 46 cold 15 high 31 73 trek

Step I – 15 52 peak snow freeze 46 cold high 31 73 trek 91

Step II – 15 31 52 peak snow freeze 46 cold high trek 73 91

Step III – 15 31 46 peak snow freeze cold high trek 52 73 91

Step IV – 15 31 46 cold peak snow freeze high trek 52 73 91

Step V – 15 31 46 cold freeze peak snow high trek 52 73 91

Step VI – 15 31 46 cold freeze high peak snow trek 52 73 91

Based on the above arrangement, answer the last step of the following sequence in the comments-

Input – 67 hot sun 19 best 83 ice 49 ace 77 cut 37

# How to Solve Input – Output? Concept & Tips

In Banking and Insurance exams, five questions are frequently asked from this topic.

1. Shifting – In this type of problems, we usually shift the given words (or numbers) of the given input as per fixed pattern. Generally letters and numbers are placed in ascending or descending order, one at each step. The following example shows how this is done:

For e.g. –

Input: Ram person is a great

Step I: a Ram person is  great
Step II: a great Ram person is
Step III: a great is Ram person
Step IV:  a great is person Ram
Step IV is the last step.

In the above arrangement, in each step one word is arranged one step at a time from left to right in ascending alphabetical order.

2. Arrangement– In this type of questions, the words or the numbers are arranged as per a fixed order. The pattern of ordering could be:

1. Alphabetical in case of words.

2. Increasing or decreasing in case of numbers.

3. According to number of consonants or vowels in each word.

4. According to the words beginning with consonants or vowels.

5. According to even numbers or odd numbers.

The arrangement types of questions also consist of various types of categories such as; Single shifting arrangement, Double Shifting arrangement.

(I). Single shifting arrangement – In single shifting arrangement, one word or numbers are arranged either in a left or right side in each step. The process continues till the last steps. For e.g:

Input: 22 care 59 never 87 sold 15 land house 43

Step I: care 22 59 never 87 sold 15 land house 43
Step II: care 15 22 59 never 87 sold land house 43
Step III: care 15 house 22 59 never 87 sold land 43
Step IV: care 15 house 22 land 59 never 87 sold 43
Step V: care 15 house 22 land 43 59 never 87 sold
Step VI: care 15 house 22 land 43 never  59 87 sold
Step V: care 15 house 22 land 43 never  59 sold 87
Step V is the last step of the given input.

After observing the arrangement, we can conclude that in first step; word is arranged in left side in ascending order and in second step number is arranged in left side in increasing order. The process continues till the last step.

Special Note: After arranging word “house” in step III our next arrangement will be “22”, but is already come in its place without arranging, so we will not count 22 in our next step and move to word“land” which will be arrange step IV.

The same case is repeated in step VI, after arranging the word “never”our next arrangement will be “59”, but is already come in its place without arranging, so we will not count 59 in our next step and move to word “sold” which will be arrange step V.

3. Double shifting arrangement – In double shifting arrangement, two words (or numbers) are arranged either in a left side or right side in each step. The process continues till the last steps. For e.g:

Input: more 40 great and 60 74 will

Step I: 74 more 40 great 60 will and
Step II: 74 60 more 40 will and great
Step III: 74 60 40 will and great more
Step IV: 74 60 40 and great more will
Step IV: is the last step of the arrangement of the above input as the intended rearrangement is obtained.

After observing the arrangement, we can conclude that in each steps; the numbers are arranging in decreasing order on the left end and words are arranging in alphabetic orderon the right end. The process continues till the last steps.

Special note: In arrangement problems, we cannot find previous step. If Step IV or Step V is given and in question and it was asked to find the previous step, we cannot find it. So, our answer will be cannot determined.

### Points to Remember

For arranging the logic of arrangement you are advised to follow a certain things.

Have a glance at the first and the last step. This will give you a rough idea of what really happened in between the steps.

1. Have a quick glance at every step to know how this is being carried out.

2. Rearrange the given input step by step or if required move from final step to the input.

Now, since you have understood Input- Output Concepts and Shortcuts, you can attempt short Input- Output quiz through the below link:

Thanks