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In this test, the success of a candidate depends upon his/her knowledge of blood relations, some of which are summarized below to help solve these tests. In your own language, you may know all types of relations. In English also you should know all types of relation without any doubt. Some important relations are provided below. You should remember these relations to solve these types of problems.

Important Relations

  • Mother’s (or) father’s son – Brother
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s Daughter – Sister
  • Mother’s brother – Maternal Uncle
  • Father’s Brother – Paternal uncle
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s sister – Aunt
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s father – Grand father
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s mother – Grand mother
  • Son’s wife – Daughter in law
  • Daughter’s husband – Son in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s father – Father in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s mother – Mother in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s brother – Brother in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s sister – Sister in law
  • Sister’s husband – Brother in law
  • Brother’s (or) Sister’s son – Nephew
  • Brother’s (or) Sister’s daughter – Niece

Type Of Problems

  1. Single Person Blood Relations
  1. Mixed Blood Relations
  1. Coded Blood Relations

1.Single Person Blood Relations

These are Relations between two people only.

1(a) DIRECT Single Person Blood Relations :

Break the given sentence at is/was/as and resolve it from last point to is/was/as to get easy solution for the problem.

Carefully observe the given examples:

Ex – 1 :

Pointing to a lady Ravi said,” She is the only daughter of the father of my sister’s brother”. How is she related to Ravi?

Solution :

Break the given sentence at is.

From the last, in the view of Ravi,

My sister’s brother – brother

Father of brother – father

Daughter of father – sister

So,that becomes “she is my sister”

So, answer is sister.

Ex-2 :

John introduces Mary as the daughter of the only son of my father’s wife. How is Mary related to john?

Solution :

Break the given sentence at as.

Resolving from the last, In the view of john,

My father’s wife – mother

Only son of mother – himself i.e. john

Daughter of john– daughter.

So, answer is daughter.

NOTE : Sometimes they might ask like how is john related to Mary. In that case, answer is a father. So, don’t make answers without clear understanding in this type of problems.

1(b) INDIRECT Single Person Blood Relations :

Break the given sentence at is/was/as.

Resolve the sentence from last upto is/was/as.

And also resolve the sentence from the first upto is /was/as.

Then you will get the easy solution. Observe the below examples.

Ex-3 :

Pointing to a man in the photograph, a Woman says,” His mother’s only daughter is my mother”. How is man related to a woman?

Solution :

Break the sentence at is.

From the last, up to is : my mother – Woman’s mother

From the first, up to is : his mother’s only daughter – his sister

His sister = woman’s mother.

So, the answer is Mother’s brother i.e. Uncle.

If the question asks like how is woman related to that man? Then answer is sister’s daughter i.e. niece.

Ex-4 :

Introducing Suresh, Kalpana said,” His brother’s father is the only son of my grandfather”. How is Kalpana related to Suresh?

Solution :

Break the sentence at is.

From the last up to is: The only son of my grandfather – father

From the first up to is : his brother’s father – father

Suresh’s father = Kalpana’s father

So, they are brother & a sister.

Answer is sister.

NOTE : Like in the above type of problems From either ends if it is like

Father = Father Uncle= Uncle

Mother = Mother Aunt = Aunt

Then they both may be brothers/sisters / bother & sister depending upon their sex.

2. Mixed Blood Relations

In this, mutual blood relations depending on more than two persons mentioned. These type of problems can be solved with the help of diagrams. Follow these symbols in the diagram to avoid confusion.

+ Male candidate

– Female candidate

<=> Couple

——- Same generation i.e.brother –brother (or) sister-sister (or) sister to brother

_______ Different generations i.e. father-son (or) mother-son (or) father – daughter (or) Mother – daughter

The following list of generation might be helpful to you.

First generation : Grand father, Grand mother

Second generation : Father, Mother, Uncle, Aunt.

Third generation : Self, Sister, Brother, Sister in law, Brother in law

Fourth generation : Son, Daughter, Nephew, Niece.

Better to use the same generation in one horizontal row in the diagrams.

EX – 5 :

A and B are brothers and C and D are sisters. A’s son is D’s brother. How is B related to C?


By using above notations we can draw the below diagram. A, B are taken ‘+’ and C, D

are taken as ‘-’. It seems that A, B belongs to one generation and C, D belongs to another generation.

So, A, B are taken in one horizontal row and C, D are taken in another horizontal line.

It says that A is C’s father. Father’s brother is an uncle. So, answer is uncle.

Sometimes they might ask paragraph questions in blood relations type problems.

EX – 6 :

Read the information carefully and answer the question given below it.

A family consists of 6 members P, Q, R, X, Y, Z.
Q is the son of R but R is not the mother of Q.
P and R are a married couples.
Y is the brother of R, X is the daughter of P.
Z is the brother of P.

Questions :

  • Who is the brother in law of R?
  • How many female members are there in the family?
  • How is Q related to X?
  • How is Y related to P?


Draw the diagram with given instructions below.

  • Q is son of R. draw this one with thick line in different horizontal rows. Both are male so take as’+’.
  • Use <=> between P and R in same row, because they are couple.
  • Add Y to R with dotted line in same row.
  • Add X to P with thick line downwards to different row. Here, X is ‘–‘.
  • Add Z to P and take Z as ‘+’.
  • So, Q and X are brother & sister.

Answers :

  • Brother in law means wife’s brother i.e. Z
  • Two female members are there with ‘-‘ symbols i.e. P and X.
  • Q is brother of X.
  • Y is husband’s brother to P. i.e. brother in law.

3. Coded Blood Relations

In this type, relationships represented by codes and symbols like + , – , / , *. You have to analyze the required relation based on the given code. In this also you may need diagrammatic representation of problem to solve it. Use the same representation used in mixed blood relations. In the coding equation better to solve the code from the last letter.

Ex -7 :

If P+Q means P is the husband of Q, P/Q means P is the sister of Q, P*Q means P is the son of Q. how is D related to An in D*B+C/A?

Solution :

C/A – C is a sister of Q.

B+C/A – B is brother in law of A (sister’s husband – brother in law.

D*B+C/A – D is the nephew of A (sister’s husband’s son means sister’s son i.e. nephew).

So, answer is Nephew.

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  • Dhal Debasish

    Good one