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CAUSE & EFFECT Tricks

CAUSE & EFFECT is a major area of logical reasoning topic. Usually in such questions the candidates are asked to determine whether a given event is the cause or the effect of some other event. The idea behind putting these questions is to ascertain the analytical and logical reasoning ability of the aspirants.

An event does not happen automatically but there is a definite cause behind it. The causes are conditions under which these events happen. The scientific view of cause is one where:

  1. It must be a scientifically proven fact that the cause leads to the said effect.
  2. The said effect should be a logical consequence of the said cause.

There may be several necessary conditions for the occurrence of an event and that they must all be included in the sufficient condition.

Immediate Cause: An immediate cause means a cause that immediately precedes the effect. Immediate cause are the most proximate in time, to the effect.

Principal Cause: The principal cause is the main and the most important reason behind the effect.

Independent Cause – An independent cause means a cause that does not have any relationship with the given statement.

Rule – Cause is always antecedent. Naturally the cause will occur before the effect. Hence, if two events are given then the effect that is chronologically antecedent to the other one can only be regarded as a possible cause.

Format of the problem:

Statements:

  1. Indian Economy is observing remarkable growth.
  2. Standard of living among the middle class society is constantly going up since part of few years.
  • Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect.
  • Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.
  • Both the statements I and II are independent causes.
  • Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes.
  • Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.

Ans (2) Since the standard of living among the middle class society is constantly going up so Indian Economy is observing remarkable growth.

Statements:

  1. The government has decided to make all the information related to primary education available to the general public.
  2. In the past, the general public did not have access to all these information related to primary education.
  • Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect.
  • Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect.
  • Both the statements I and II are independent causes.
  • Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes.
  • Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.

Ans (2) The government must have seen the unawareness of the people as a strong factor in the primary education programme being not successful. The steps indicated in I must, thus have been sought for as a remedy for the same. So, option (b) is our answer.

Important note:

(a) If first event I is in present perfect tense and II is in future tense. Eliminate choice (a) and (c). As event II cannot be a cause or event I.
(b) If event I is in present perfect and event II is in present continuous, so event I occurs before II. Thus eliminate choice (a) and (c).
(c) Event I is in present perfect tense and event II is in present continuous, so event I occurs before event II. Hence, event II cannot be a cause. Thus eliminate choices (a) and (c).

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