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Cloze Test Tricks & Tips

Cloze Test Tricks & Tips


Cloze Test Preparation Strategy

A Cloze reading test is an exercise where the candidates are provided with a passage which has certain words missing from it. It follows logically that to ace such an assessment, candidates must have a strong command over English language, along with a flair for grammar and a good vocabulary. More importantly, it is important to understand the flow and context of the passage. While the Cloze Test for IBPS PO is considered by many to be the toughest question type in the paper, there are some simple tips and tricks to solving these without being a Ph.D. in English Grammar.

Here is a small example:

Disregarding the news about impending bad weather, I decided to go out without a/an _______and ended up getting wet. I resolved thereafter to always take note of the weather ______.

The correct answers in the above scenario would be ‘an umbrella’ or ‘a raincoat’ for the first blank and ‘report’ or ‘forecast’ for the second.

Since many exams now administer the Cloze test to assess the level of English proficiency of their candidates, it is imperative that if you are appearing for such an exam, you have a clear sense of how and what to prepare. Here are some tips that could be of help-

  1. Read Thoroughly– Read the passage provided very thoroughly to form an idea about the topic. Read slowly and gain an understanding of the text. Once the theme of the text is somewhat clear, your job becomes easier. You can then go on to think of the appropriate words that suit the situation being described and proceed to filling in the blanks.
  1. Link the Sentences Together- Remember that it is a passage with sentences that are connected to each other. Do not make the mistake of treating each sentence like an individual one and filling in the blanks accordingly. Try to come up with logical connections that link up the sentences together and your job will automatically become easier.
  1. The Type of Word to Fill in– Now look at the blanks carefully and assess the kind of words you have to fill in. Which part of speech would it be? Would it be a noun, a pronoun, a verb, a preposition, a conjunction or an article? For example-
  • A noun– I forgot to carry my ____ to school. I therefore had to share with my friend.
    The logical answer here would be a book or tiffin.
  • An article– He ate ____ papaya and threw ___ seeds away.
    Articles are usually the easiest to answer. Fill in ‘a’ and ‘an’ where talking about general facts and ‘the’ when using it before something specific. Here, the answer is ‘the’ or ‘his’ in the first case and ‘the’ or ‘its’ in the second.
  • A verb– _____ for half an hour left me breathless. The idea of being breathless connotes something strenuous like ‘exercising’ or ‘running’.

In this way, think of the appropriate word to fill in.

  1. Eliminate Options– You will often come across a blank that has more than one correct option. List out all these options and try them one by one. Use the one that seems most fitting. Instead of getting confused, think of words that are appropriate not only to the given sentence but also fit the context of the entire passage.
  2. Go with Frequently Used Words- Sometimes, you may not be able to decide between two words. In this case, if you see a word in the options that is frequently used with the words around the blank, then pick that option. For example-Can I have a ____ word with you?
    A. swift
    B. quick
    C. prompt

You can see that the three options nearly mean the same thing. How do you decide which one fits the blank?

Sometimes in English, some words are used more frequently with some others. Like ‘bad habit’, ‘hardly ever’, ‘happy ending’, ‘take a seat’, ‘make room’ etc. In the same way, the words ‘quick’ and ‘word’ are used together frequently. So ‘quick’ should be your answer in this case.

  1. Check Tone – The passage is usually written in a certain tone; sometimes narrative, sometimes critical, sometimes humorous. Pick words that fit in with the tone of the passage. For example –

Jonah ____ down the stairs, bumping along like a quarter in a tumbling dryer.
A. tumbled
B. fell
C. dropped   

Clearly, you can use either ‘tumbled’ or ‘fell’ in this blank. But the rest of the sentence is written in a humorous vein. So we try to maintain the tone of the sentence. This is best accomplished by the use of the word ‘tumbled’ as it brings to mind images of people falling funnily.

  1. Build up Your Language Skills– In terms of the general preparation you can do, read, read and read as much as you can. The more you read, the better sense you will have of what word goes where. It will also help build up your vocabulary. Both these things will go a long way in helping you ace the Cloze Test.
  1. Practice makes a man perfect– In the end, there is no substitute for hard work and practice. Try to complete three to four passages each day while preparing and get an insight into your problem areas. Work on them and go deliver your best.

Tips and Tricks To Solve New Pattern Cloze Test

Take a look at how you can solve English cloze test to excel in Banking exams.
1.Take a bird’s eye view:  Read the entire passage to get a rough idea about the overall theme and direction of the passage.
2.Understand the tone of discussion: ( Jubilant, livid, lamenting, ambivalent, awed) This will help you eliminate 50% of the irrelevant options.
3.Eliminate with care:  Select the word type and options that fall outside the scope of discussion  that should be eliminated.
4.Take help of prepositions: The knowledge of how prepositions are used will surely come handy. There are times when looking at preposition alone can fetch you a good score in cloze test.
5.Look at what comes before and after: It is always advised to look at the sentences that come before and after the sentence that has blank in it. By doing so, quite often you will get a confirmation or some sort of clue regarding the most appropriate word to fill.
Now look at this example: 
……(1)…… (Although)stringent anti-pollution laws, mass awareness levels in India about the need to ……(2)……(pollute) the environment are low. Which is ……(3)…… (because) many people insist that mere laws won’t do: what we ……(4)……(seldom) need are “environment conscious” citizens.
Follow the tips mentioned above:
1.observe the tone of the paragraph
2.Eliminate irrelevant /alien options
3.look for prepositions if any
4.For further confirmation, look at what comes before and after
Now look at the options given below and complete the cloze test.
Q1. 
(a) Despite
(b) Having
(c) Enacting
(d) Adopting
(e) No change
 
Q2. 
(a) Contaminate
(b) clear
(c) filter
(d) protect
(e) No change
 
Q3. 
(a) resulting
(b) why
(c) obvious
(d) as
(e) No change
 
Q4. 
(a) actually
(b) don’t
(c) hardly
(d) perfectly
(e) No change
Check your answers:
S1. Ans.(a)
Sol. The passage should start with a negative conjunction as the succeeding phrases denote that ‘mass awareness levels are low even though we have strict laws’. Hence, Option A is correct.
S2. Ans.(d)
Sol. Option E and A are eliminated because from the sentence this is understood that there are stringent pollution laws and even though we have laws, we couldn’t secure the environment. Option D is correct as the sentence can be read as ‘need t protect the environment are low’.
S3. Ans.(b)
Sol. Option B is the correct choice. Between ‘why’ and ‘because’, because can be eliminated as it is used as a negative conjunction. Hence option B is the correct choice.
S4. Ans.(a)
Sol. B, C can be eliminated as they give negative connotation when substituted in the given context. Between A and D, option ‘A’, ‘actually’, fits right into the sentence and can be read as ‘what we actually need is the environment, conscious citizens. Hence, A.

 

TIPS ON HOW TO COMPLETE CLOZE TESTS

  • First, slowly read all the text without filling any of the gaps. Read it two or three times until you have a clear understanding of what the text is about.
  • Then only complete the gaps you are absolutely sure of.
  • Next try and find out what the missing words in the remaining gaps are. See which part of speech may fit in each gap (article?, pronoun?, noun?, adverb?, adjective?, preposition?, conjunction?, verb?) and pay special attention to the grammar around the words in each gap.

Many of the gaps may include the following:

preposition following a noun, adjective or verb. (Example: good at languages)

prepositional phrase. (Example: in spite of )

adverb. ( Example: He moved to London two years ago )

connector. (Example: First, he arrives; then he sits down; finally, he leaves.)

conjunction. (Example: Although he is five, he can speak five languages.

auxiliary verb . (Example: He has won 2 matches)

– an article or some other kind of determiner. (Example: I have no time)

– a relative . (Example: Bob, who I met two years ago, is my best friend)

– a pronoun , either subject or object. (Example : it is difficult to know)

– is there a comparative or superlative involved? (Example: she’s taller than me)

  • Some sentences may seem to be complete and contain gaps that appear to be unnecessary. If you find gaps like this, you will probably need the following:

an adverb. (Example: He is always late)

a modal verb . (Example: They can swim very well)

– a word to change the emphasis of the sentence: She’s good enough to be queen

– The problems are too difficult

  • A few gaps may demand a vocabulary item consistent with the topic of the text; or a word which is part of an idiomatic expression (example: Good heavens!); or a word which collocates with another one (example: do a job); or a word which is part of a phrasal verb (example: I was held up by traffic).

More Tips for Cloze test

We get lots of e-mails and messages in which students share their problems regarding English section. Most of their problems were related to sentence completion/ fill in the blanks/ Cloze test. Though English is the most marks-securing section, but students are unable to secure much in this. The reason is the lack of basic knowledge syntax system of the sentence arrangement. Sometimes the options are out of the box and you don’t know the meaning of some words. Therefore, we are here to share some tips and tricks so that you will be able to solve the cloze test easily.

1. Passage Reading

Whenever you start doing cloze test, pause for a couple of minutes and read the passage. This will help you to get a clear idea of the main theme, the tone of the author and the major ideas given in the passage. Once you get these things clearly, it will be easier for you to fill the gaps between the passage.

2. Establish Links

While filling the gaps you must establish the links between two sentence.  Each sentence given in the passage is the part of the paragraph. Never assume that you have to treat a sentence as a single entity. Whatever word you will fill in the gap must build a relationship with the next sentence. If you fail to do so, your answer may lack to create a logical sequence.

Example:

Cyber criminals have two objectives: find targets that will yield high payoff for their ____ (1) __ and attack those high payoff targets that offer the least resistance. Their business model is simple: the least efforts for the greatest ___ (2) __ gain.

(1) (a) efforts
(b) order
(c) past
(d) Pardon
(e) reference

(2) (a) moral
(b) educational
(c) social
(d) nominal
(e) financial

Here in blank (1) the sentence is related to cyber criminals. These criminals want high payoff for their efforts obviously because there is no point of filling the gap with other options, there is no logical reason to fill “order, past, pardon or reference“. Now in the second sentence, you must have to keep in mind that the passage is about criminals and criminals have nothing to do with moral, educational, social gain. Nominal gains are never the aim of these criminal. All they need is financial gain. So, by establishing the links between first and second sentence, we came to know that the correct answer of blank (2) is financial.

3. Types Of Words

Each and every language follows a sentence pattern which is called syntax. Like an adjective comes before a noun and an adverb always follows a verb. We always need an article before an object. Ordinals like 1, 2, 3 fifth, sixth tenth always are always followed by a noun/pronoun. Lets understand it with some examples

Examples

(a) Teena is girl.
Now here the sentence looks incomplete.
Teena is a girl.
This is a complete sentence. Here, the article “a” completed the sentence.
(b) Teena is a girl good.
Good is an adjective but it is placed incorrectly because an adjective comes before a noun.
Teena is a good girl.
Now the syntax is correct.
(c) Teena slowly walks.
Slowly is an adverb but the placement of adverb is incorrect. As we have discussed that an adverb always follows a verb. So
“Teena walks slowly” is the correct arrangement of the words.

4. Elimination Technique

When the passage is too confusing and you find it completely out of your hands to solve the passage or a sentence, go with the elimination method.  Here, you start eliminating the most extreme answers according to the context of the passage. Eliminating options one by one will lead you to the most appropriate answer.

Example

These cyber attackers are highly motivated, well organised and ___ (5) ___.

(a) fussy
(b) unpredictable
(c) beneficial
(d) trustworthy
(e) honorary

Suppose you can’t find the answer of blank 5. Here the cyber attackers are highly motivated well-organised and …
fussy is particular
No cyber attack is particular because the main motive of the cyber attack is just to gain money and it can be targeted to anyone. So, option eliminated
c. is beneficial: can any cyber attack be beneficial for anyone? No!! Option eliminated.
d. Cyber attackers are not trustworthy. So, we eliminate the option and as long as the option (e) is considered no cyber attack can be honoured.
So, we are left with unpredictable as the answer which is the most appropriate answer according to the context.

5. Tone Detection

Reading the passage can give you a clear view of the passage and this can help you to fill the gap with the accurate answer. Sometimes the passage is of comic tone, intense mood and ironical topic. If you can sense the tone, there is nothing better than this. Even each sentence represent some tone.

Example

Having searched my pockets in vain for stray coins and having found I was ___(10)__ penniless.

a. utterly
b. mostly
c. partially
d. truly
e. totally
Here, in this sentence, the person is hopeless because his search of money ends in vain, so the tone is tensed. Truly/partially/mostly are out of the context because the pocket has no coin so it can’t be partially filled. Truly and mostly cannot be the in the context of money. So the only option we are left with is Utterly; utterly is more intense than totally so we will choose utterly as our answer.

6. Use of Common Words

Sometimes a blank appears in the cloze test that has all the correct answer on your point of view. Whenever this kind of situation arises, chose the most commonly used phrase or word for that blank. Never try to be smart by choosing any other option because you find it suitable too. These sentences are given to test your general knowledge of the language.

Example

I had a______ word with him.
a. prompt
b. swift
c. quick
d. rapid
Here, all the options are synonyms of each other and all the options seem appropriate according to us. Right? But hang on a moment. What is the most commonly used word here? Right!! It is quick. Without thinking twice just mark option (c) as your answer.

7. Read & Practice More!

Nothing is more valuable than practice and reading. Reading books, journals, magazines and newspapers will clear your doubts regarding sentence structure and will build your vocabulary. Strong vocabulary will give you the strength to use the words in their various forms. Moreover, magazines will teach you some new phrases every day.
So, this is all we could share with you. I hope you will find this article worth reading. Keep working hard and practice more every day. Keep your eyes and ears alert to catch minute details and information from your daily life.

 

Cloze Test is one of the recurring topics under the English Language section of various competitive exams. It tests a candidates understanding of the passage, grammatical skills and vocabulary, and like RC, it is one of the most scoring topics under the English Language section.

Cloze Test is a passage (like Reading Comprehension) with certain set of words missing. The Cloze Test passages contain sentences that are logically connected, have a well-defined structure and pattern and follow a chronological order. All these help in maintaining a unified tone throughout the passage of the Cloze Test. One can say, that Cloze Test is a combination of Reading Comprehension and Fill in the Blanks.

In a Cloze Test, candidates are given a passage with multiple blanks. Each blank has an option with 4-5 alternatives. Candidates are required to select the most suitable alternative.

Note on the New Pattern of Cloze Test

In recent times, there has been a change in the pattern of the Cloze Test:

  • The blanks in the passage already contain the words
  • A new option called ‘No changes required’ is provided for every blank

If the word given in the blank is correct, the candidates are required to choose the ‘No changes required’ option. If the given word is incorrect, the candidates are required to choose the best alternative, to replace the given word, from the given options.

 

How to Approach Cloze Test

Step 1: Read the passage

Read the given passage carefully. Do not treat the sentences like individual sentences. Sentences in a Cloze Test passage are logically connected/linked. Once you determine the logical relation between the sentences, finding appropriate words for the blanks (or replacing the given word with appropriate one in the new pattern) becomes an easy task.

 

Step 2: Identify the tone & sentence pattern

Every Cloze Test passage has a tone. It could be a narrative, it could be humorous, it could be factual or it could be critical. Identifying the tone of the passage helps in looking for the right words to fill in the blanks/replace the given word.

The sentences in a cloze test are logically connected and follow a chronological order. Identifying this pattern in the sentences will help you get an idea of the kind of word that you need to fill; whether it is a noun/pronoun/verb/preposition/conjunction/article, etc. The best fitting words are the ones that maintain the tone and the consistency of the passage.

 

Examples:

Articles: She opened ___ bag and took ___ books out (Blanks that require articles to be filled are the easiest to answer. ‘A’ and ‘An’ for the general facts and ‘The’ article for anything specific)

Solution: She opened the bag and took the books out.

Noun: I carry my ____ to the college (The most appropriate answer would be a noun: laptop/book)

Solution: I carry my book to the college.

Verb: _______ is good for physical as well as mental health (the words ‘good for health’ gives a hint about the kind of word required to fill the gap. It could be anything that’s good for health: Eating, sleeping, running, exercising, etc.)

Solution: Exercising is good for physical as well as mental health.

 

Step 3: Determine the word type based on tone

The tone of the passage goes a long way in helping candidates pick the right words. Sometimes, the words given are very similar and might end up confusing the candidates. In such cases, identifying the tone helps in picking the right word.

 

Example:

Gloria ______ merrily along the way with her little bunnies.

(i) a. Jumped b. Leaped c. Hopped

The above sentence has a humorous/happy tone (as opposed to a serious/critical one). You must choose a word that maintains the tone of the sentence. Choosing the word ‘Hopped’ helps in accomplishing that, as it brings to the mind images of people jumping with joy.

 

For the old pattern

Step 4: Eliminate wrong options

Sometimes it is difficult to spot the answers. In such cases, use the elimination technique to discard answers that are most definitely wrong and out of context.

 

Example:

Mr. Miller likes his tea steaming ____.

(i) a. Cold b. Hot c. Lukewarm

It is obvious that cold/lukewarm coffee does not steam. Eliminate them and you’re left with the right answer.

 

Step 5: Enter a suitable word

Once you are done reading the passage, identifying the tone, determining the right word and eliminating the wrong ones, it is time to fill the blank with the suitable word. Try and fit the given options in the blanks one by one and eliminate the ones that don’t fit.

Sometimes candidates are unsure if a particular option is fitting or not, in such cases, check if the word from the passage fits in with the theme/tone/tense of the given passage. Sometimes the clue is present in the words/sentences before and after the blank and you can use your knowledge of the meaning and usage of given words (options) to pick the right one.

If you are still confused and are not able to pick between two or more words, pick the word that’s most frequently used with the word(s) around the blank.

 

Example:

Is that your _____ address?

(i) a. House b. Home c. Residential (All three options nearly mean the same thing. How to decide then?)

Sometimes, in the English Language, some words are frequently used together. For example; make room, bad habit, about time, fast food, etc.

In the above example, ‘House’ & ‘Address’ are generally used together. Hence, House is the answer.

 

For the new pattern

Check if the given word matches with the tone and pattern of the sentence and the passage. If it does, choose the option: ‘No changes required‘. Also check if any of the other options given would make a better alternative to the given word. If one of the options given seem like a better alternative, choose that option.

 

Final step: Re-read the passage

Once you are done picking the right options, re-read the entire passage. Make sure the passage sounds grammatically and logically correct and that the words you chose maintain the overall tone and pattern of the given passage.

Practice is the key to master this topic. Practice solving previous years’ Cloze Test passages, check your performance and measure your progress. Reading a variety of text will help you be prepared for passages from any kind of topic and build a strong vocabulary.

 

Try solving the following Cloze Test passage (Solutions are provided at the end)

Every month, scientists ___(i)___ new gadgets and new ways to make technology faster and better. Our homes are full of hardware (such as DVD players and computers) and ___(ii)___ (such as computer games and MP3s). ___(iii)___ suggests, however, that it is the young people who are best able to deal with this change. Whereas teenagers have no problem ___(iv)___ a DVD player, their parents and grandparents often find using new technology ___(v)___ and different. But if you’re a teenager who criticizes your parents for their ___(vi)___ of technological awareness, don’t be too hard on them! Sometime ___(vii)___the future, when you’ve got children of your own, your ___(viii)___ to deal with new technology will probably ___(ix)___ and your children will feel more ___(x)___ with new technology than you do.

Direction: Read the passage carefully and choose the correct answer to each question out of the four alternatives and fill in the blanks.

 

Options:

1. (i)=? (A) found (B) invent (C) estimate (D) discover

2. (iv)=? (A) operating (B) discovering (C) inventing (D) explaining

3. (vi)=? (A) storage (B) amount (C) effect (D) lack

4. (x)=? (A) pleased (B) able (C) comfortable (D) easy

5. (v)=? (A) sudden (B) unique (C) complicated (D) automatic

6. (vii)=? (A) on (B) to (C) in (D) at

7. (viii)=? (A) possibility (B) talent (C) master (D) ability

8. (ii)=? (A) gadgets (B) laptops (C) software (D) screens

9. (ix)=? (A) please (B) decrease (C) able (D) easy

10. (iii)=? (A) industry (B) experiment (C) program (D) research

 

Solutions:

i. B – Gadgets are made by humans and hence ‘invented’ and not discovered. ‘Found’ and ‘Estimate’ are definitely wrong and can be discarded using the elimination technique.

ii. C – ‘Such as computer games and MP3s’ is a clue. Computer games, laptops and MP3s aren’t ‘software’ and hence can be discarded.

iii. D – ‘Program’ and ‘Industry’ don’t fit the bill. While the words ‘Research’ and ‘Experiment’ almost mean the same, ‘Research’ and ‘Suggests’ are frequently used together.

iv. A – ‘Discovering’ is definitely wrong and can be eliminated. ‘Inventing’ and ‘Explaining’ doesn’t fit the bill if you read the rest of the sentence. Hence, ‘Operating’ is the right answer.

v. C – ‘Unique’ and different almost mean the same and hence can be discarded. Using ‘Sudden’ and ‘Automatic’ won’t be logically or grammatically correct. Hence, ‘Complicated’ is the right answer.

vi. D – ‘Effect’, ‘Amount’ and ‘Storage’ don’t fit the bill, since they make the sentence grammatically incorrect. Hence, ‘Lack’ is the right answer.

vii. C – ‘On’, ‘To’ and ‘At’ will make the sentence grammatically incorrect. Hence, ‘In’ is the right answer.

viii. D – ‘Master’ and ‘Possibility’ will make the sentence sound grammatically incorrect. Being able to deal with technology is an ability and not a ‘Talent’. Hence, ‘Ability’ is the right answer.

ix. B – ‘Please’, ‘Able’ and ‘Easy’ will make the sentence grammatically incorrect. Hence, ‘Decrease’ is the right answer.

x. C – ‘Able’ and ‘Easy’ do not fit the bill and hence can be eliminated. ‘Pleased’ doesn’t maintain the tone or logic of the sentence. Hence, ‘Comfortable’ is the right answer.

 

FOR EXAMPLE:

My mother waved me goodbye and the bus ___(1)___. The man sitting ___(2)___ to me was a doctor ___(3)____ to Kannur, ___(4)___ participate in a conference.

Cloze test is a very complex sentence completion test. In this test you will be given a paragraph with few blanks. And you need to fill these blanks from the given alternatives. This test is complex and bit typical because it evaluates candidates Vocabulary power and his understanding of the message of the passage or we can say to test the ability to judge the overall meaning of the given passage.

Often we provide answer and we end up with wrong one..

How-to-crack-the close-test

How-to-crack-the close-test

This type of test are very common in Bank PO exam because the result of this test provides the ability of a candidate to understand a passage, and his knowledge to grammar as well, as grammar is the root of any language this test can judge the candidate very well. If you make a good command in these types of questions you can easily score good marks.

Now the question arises “How to Crack the Nut”

The Solution to this question is simple but the main thing is practice, more and more practice, but as I said in my earlier articles “Only Practice Not Makes a Man Perfect” But “Perfect Practice Makes a Man Perfect”

How to Crack the Nut?

  • First of all go through the complete passage and get a rough idea about the content and the spirit of the passage.
  • In a passage mostly all the sentence are logically related to each other. These logics will give you an idea about the appropriate word for the blank space.
  •  Sometimes you will easily spot the correct answer, if you get the answer immediately mark it. If not then eliminate the improbable options one by one and get the right answer.

Considering the above example,

My mother waved me goodbye and the bus ___(1)___. The man sitting ___(2)___ to me was a doctor ___(3)____ to Kannur, ___(4)___ participate in a conference

First go through the complete passage we can say according to the passage it is talking about a journey.
Now the options provided for (1) are
(a) going              (b) started          (c) arrived           (d) stopped        (e) traveling

Now in the above passage we can fill the (1) blank with “(b) started” as going is not proper word, it cannot be “arrived” because if someone saying good bye that means other person is going not arriving so it is also not appropriate word. Similarly cannot be “stopped”. And finally it cannot be “traveling”.

In similar way by eliminating improbable words we can find other blank as shown below.

The options for (2) are:
(a) next                (b) besides         (c) near                (d) side                    (e) neighbour
This blank will be filled by “(a) next”

The options for (3) are:
(a) coming           (b) arriving          (c) going               (d) visiting           (e) flying
This blank will be filled by “(c) going”

The options for (4) are:
(a) to                     (b) for                   (c) so                     (d) and                 (e) then
This blank will be filled by “(a) to”

This way you can easily get the point by finding the spirit of the passage as here the spirit of the passage was the boy is going somewhere thus this makes easier to eliminate words like ‘arriving, stopped, etc ’from the given options.

Constant practice will help to answer cloze test quickly and accurately. The best practice to solve these questions is regular reading and interaction with English. And let me remind you again this can help you to score full marks in this cloze test. Practice more and more, clear your doubts, ask questions (off course we are always here for your help).

 

A Practice Passage is given below:

Smile, they say, and soon there will be miles and miles of smiles. If we keep ___(1)___ ourselves and do not mix with others, we shall soon be left alone to ponder ___(2)___ the misfortunes of life. Nobody likes to come across a ___(3)___ and self-centred person. People ___(4)___ gregarious and outgoing souls who are prepared to share their joys and sorrows ___(5)___ if they have the capacity to laugh ___(6)___ their problems and miseries. Laughter brings people ___(7)___ whereas keeping to oneself distances people. It has ___(8)___ been rightly said that laughter is the shortest distance between two persons. Once two persons ____(9)____ together, the circle of acquaintance and consequently friendship ___(10)___, thus making the world a happy place to live in.

1. (a) by                 (b) to                    (c) with                 (d) into              (e) across
2. (a) over             (b) on                   (c) at                     (d) upon            (e) above
3. (a) sad               (b) serious          (c) glum               (d) selfish          (e) resent
4. (a) like              (b) love                (c) hate                 (d) dislike         (e) resent
5. (a) disappear   (b) vanish           (c) increase          (d) fade out      (e) develop
6. (a) at                  (b) over               (c) away                (d) on               (e) above
7. (a) close            (b) near               (c) together          (d) apart          (e) different
8. (a) hence          (b) so                   (c) however          (d) therefore   (e) thus
9. (a) get               (b) come              (c) sit                     (d) are              (e) go
10. (a) widens      (b) broadens      (c) increases         (d) grows         (e) narrows

Answers:
(1) b.     (2) a.      (3) c.      (4) b.     (5) b.     (6) c.      (7) c.      (8) d.     (9) b.     (10). d

 

Directions—(Q.11-20) In the following passage there are blanks each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each five words/ phrases are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

I said, “Wow, B! What a room.”  He looked sort of embarrassed and told me that he and his dad _1_ it just so.  He said, “You’re in _2_! Today we are going to work _3_ the details of the rocket _4_.” Of course, I have no idea what he’s talking about. “I’m going to build _5_ rockets for the Fourth of July fireworks,” he continued.  “I’ve got some light weight metal sheets and I need your help in _6_ a base for the rocket.”  I was sort of relieved that I wasn’t going to have to mix up combustible ingredients _7_ a hot Bunsen burner!

We got some supplies and looked up the rocket launcher on the internet.  B had lots of contacts and web sites to check out for reference.  After reading the _8_, I could think of nothing but _9_ the rocket launcher into position.  When I heard my mom’s horn honk outside I jumped up in amazement!  How could four hours have _10_ away that fast? Especially considering that I was learning something new! I told B goodbye, and he promised not to continue until I came back tomorrow.

1. Choose the correct option

  1. Planned
  2. Say
  3. Made
  4. Decide
  5. Trust

2. Choose the correct option

  1. Mess
  2. Home
  3. Sad
  4. Luck
  5. School

3. Choose the correct option

  1. In
  2. On
  3. Out
  4. Off
  5. At

4. Choose the correct option

  1. Base
  2. Station
  3. Science
  4. Toy
  5. Launcher

5. Choose the correct option

  1. Some
  2. Many
  3. Much
  4. More
  5. Less

6. Choose the correct option

  1. Building
  2. Standing
  3. Making
  4. Creating
  5. Made

7. Choose the correct option

  1. On
  2. At
  3. Over
  4. Below
  5. Down

8. Choose the correct option

  1. Notice
  2. Hoarding
  3. Pamphlet
  4. Instructions
  5. Dictionary

9. Choose the correct option

  1. Moulding
  2. Make
  3. Placing
  4. Made
  5. Create

10. Choose the correct option

  1. Moved
  2. Slipped
  3. Pass
  4. Stopped
  5. Swift

Answers:

1.   (1)

2.   (4)

3.   (3)

4.   (5)

5.   (1)

6.   (1)

7.   (3)

8.   (4)

9.   (1)

10.   (2)

Practice Problems On Cloze Test


Directions: In the passage given below there are 6 blanks, each followed by a word given in bold. Every blank has four alternative words given in options (A),(B),(C) and (D). You have to tell which word will best suit the respective blank. Mark (E) as your answer if the work given in bold after the blank is your answer i.e “No change required

Science fiction both predicts the future and (1)     (focus) the scientists and technologists who (2)         (work for develop) that future about. Mobile phones, to take a famous example, are essentially real-life versions of the hand-held communicators wielded by Captain Kirk and his crewmates in the original series of “Star Trek”. The clamshell models of the mid-2000s even take design cues directly from those fictional devices.

If companies ranging from giants like Microsoft and Google to newcomers like Magic Leap and Meta have their way, the next thing to leap from fiction to fact will be augmented reality (AR). AR is a sci-fi staple, from Arnold Schwarzenegger’s heads-up display in the “Terminator” films to the holographic computer screens that Tom Cruise slings around as a futuristic policeman in “Minority Report”.

AR is a close (3)     (cousin) to virtual reality (VR). There is, though, a crucial difference between them: the near-opposite meanings they (4)    (parable)  to the term “reality”. VR aims to drop users into a convincing, but artificial, world. AR, by contrast, supplements the real world by laying useful or entertaining computer-generated data over it. Such an overlay might be a map annotated with directions, or a reminder about a meeting, or even a virtual alien with a ray gun, ripe (5)     (bombast). Despite the hype and (6)      (important) given recently to VR, people tend to spend more time in real realities than computer-generated ones. AR thus has techies licking their lips in anticipation of a giant new market. Digi-Capital, a firm of merger and acquisitions advisors in California, reckons that of the $108 billion a year which it predicts will be spent by 2021 on VR and AR combined, AR will take three-quarters.

 

  1. A) move
    B) influence
    C) urge
    D) command
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
      Option B

  2. A) disposed to maintain
    B) adhere to carry
    C) work to bring
    D) work to brought
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
      Option C

  3. A) buddy
    B) relative
    C) niece
    D) bunny
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
      Option E

  4. A) arrogate
    B) absolve
    C) beg
    D) ascribe
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
      Option D

  5. A) for enhancing
    B) for boosting
    C) for carrying
    D) for aspiring
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
      Option B

  6. A) exploration
    B) experience
    C) encroachment
    D) prominence
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
      Option D

Directions: In the passage given below there are 6 blanks, each followed by a word given in bold. Every blank has four alternative words given in options (A),(B),(C) and (D). You have to tell which word will best suit the respective blank. Mark (E) as your answer if the work given in bold after the blank is your answer i.e “No change required

Like many science-fictional technologies, AR is in fact already here—just unevenly distributed. An early version was the heads-up displays that began (1)        (to be fitted) to jet fighters in the 1950s. These projected information such as compass headings, altitude and banking angles onto the cockpit canopy. Such displays occasionally (2)     (going high)in cars, too. But only now, as computers have (3)    (smaller) enough and become sufficiently powerful, has it become possible to give people a similar sort of experience as they go about their daily lives.

Last year, for instance, the world was briefly entranced by an AR smartphone game called Pokémon Go. Players had to (4)     (lost) the world collecting virtual monsters that were, thanks to their phones’ cameras, drawn over a phone’s-eye view of a building’s lobby or a stand of trees. Apps such as Snapchat, which features image filters that permit users to take pictures of themselves and others wearing computer-generated rabbit ears or elaborate virtual make-up, are another example.

There are less (5)     (hyper) uses, too. Google’s Translate app employs computer vision, automatic translation and a smartphone’s camera to show an image of the world that has text, such as items on menus and street signs, interpreted into any of several dozen languages.

Apps like Snapchat and Translate rely on machine-vision algorithms to work their magic. Snapchat is designed to detect faces. This works well enough, but means that the (6)         (bunny) ears can be applied only to heads. Translate, similarly, looks for text in the world upon which to work its magic. But smartphone-makers have bigger plans.

  1. A) being fitted
    B) done fitting
    C) having been fitted
    D) having fitted
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
      Option E

  2. A) move away
    B) turn up
    C) turn around
    D) moving high
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
      Option B

  3. A) reduce
    B) reduced
    C) needed
    D) shrunk
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
      Option D

  4. A) range
    B) wander
    C) rove
    D) divagate
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
      Option B

  5. A) trivial
    B) petty
    C) sedate
    D) frivolous
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
      Option D

  6. A) dish
    B) honey
    C) leon
    D) cony
    E) No Correction required

    View Answer
    Option E

 

Directions (1-10): In the passage given below there are 10 blanks, each followed by a word given in bold. Each blank has four alternative words given in options (A),(B),(C) and (D). You have to tell which word will best suit the respective blank. Mark (E) as your answer if the word given in bold after the blank is your answer i.e “No change required”.

The increasing cost of higher education in the United States has been a –(1)—(contrast) topic for debate in recent decades. American society —(2)—(denigrate) the importance of education after high school, yet the cost of undergraduate and advanced degrees continually rises at a greater rate than —(3)—-(inflammation).

According to the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, cost factors

prevent 48% of college-qualified high school graduates from —(4)—-(pursuing) further education (McKeon, 2004, p. 45). The current system requires the majority of students to —-(5)—-(dissipate) extensive debt with the expectation that they gain —-(6)—-(unprofitable) post-graduate employment to repay their loans.

The cost of higher education raises several —(7)—-(ethical) issues. Among these are the perpetuation of the cycle of debt in American commercial society, the —(8)—-(hypothetical) of differing higher education institutions and cost, and the resulting socioeconomic and racial inequities in college demographics. Both an examination of the current trends and figures and a closer look at a real life example show the troublesome state of higher education and its —(9)—(affect) on our commercial society.

Research indicates a steep upward trend in the cost of higher education throughout the 20th century. In recent decades, America has witnessed a widening gap between inflation and tuition. An incoming freshman at a typical college —(10)—(infer) charges for tuition, university fees, books, room and board, and other miscellaneous items.

Q1.

(a)contempt

(b)constant

(c)continuing

(d)contrite

(e) No change required

Q2.

(a)immaculate

(b)immune

(c)inimical

(d)emphasizes

(e) No change required

Q3.

(a)inflation

(b)inference

(c)innocuous

(d)incongruous

(e) No change required

Q4.

(a)prefer

(b)perpetual

(c)perfunctory

(d)predilection

(e) No change required

Q5.

(a)accrue

(b)accumulate

(c)acrimonious

(d)accredited

(e) No change required

Q6.

(a)lascivious

(b)luscious

(c)lucrative

(d)capricious

(e) No change required

Q7.

(a)amoral

(b)ethereal

(c)exquisite

(d)immoral

(e) No change required

Q8.

(a)hierarchy

(b)dichotomy

(c)trichotomy

(d)transgression

(e) No change required

Q9.

(a)arcane

(b)affirmative

(c)effective

(d)effect

(e) No change required

Q10.

(a)insure

(b)incurs

(c)insist

(d)inflate

(e) No change required

Solutions

S1. Ans.(c)

Sol. continue (verb), gerund or present participle: continuing

Meaning: persist in an activity or process. In the given blank, we need a verb form

(present perfect continuous tense) that express the idea of continuity. hence, ‘continuing’ is correct word choice.

S2. Ans.(d)

Sol. “American society “emphasizes” the importance of education after high school”.

emphasizes is correct word choice in the given context.

denigrate (verb): criticize unfairly; disparage. denigrate is totally irrelevant word.

S3. Ans.(a)

Sol. inflation meaning: a general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value

of money. In this sentence, the comparison is done with inflation.

“the cost of undergraduate and advanced degrees continually rises at a greater rate than inflation.”

inflammatory (adjective) meaning: relating to or causing inflammation of a part of the body. this is totally out of the context word.

S4. Ans.(e)

Sol. pursuing- is correct word choice.

pursue-to carry on or continue (a course of action, a train of thought, an inquiry,

studies, etc.).

S5. Ans.(b)

Sol. accumulate-gather together or acquire an increasing number or quantity of.

accumulate correctly fits in the context of the sentence.

“The current system requires the majority of students to accumulate extensive debt with the expectation that”

dissipate meaning-(with reference to a feeling or emotion) disappear or cause to

disappear. hence, dissipate is totally irrelevant word to fit in this context.

S6. Ans.(c)

Sol. lucrative-producing a great deal of profit. according to the context we need

positive word that express profit-making. hence lucrative is correct word choice.

S7. Ans.(e)

Sol. ethical-elating to moral principles or the branch of knowledge dealing with these. ethical is correct word choice and express the idea correctly conveyed in the sentence.

S8. Ans.(a)

Sol. hierarchy-a system in which members of an organization or society are ranked according to relative status or authority.

“the hierarchy of differing higher education institutions and cost, and the resulting socioeconomic and racial inequities in college demographics.” hierarchy fits in the context of the sentence correctly.

S9. Ans.(d)

Sol. effect is a noun and affect is a verb. in this context, we need a noun form. hence ‘effect’ is correct word choice.

S10. Ans.(b)

Sol. incur-become subject to (something unwelcome or unpleasant) as a result of one’s own behaviour or actions.

infer-deduce or conclude (something) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements. infers is correct choice.

 

In September 2015, the leaders of 193 countries agreed to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – the most (1)….plan ever to promote human development – by 2030. Nearly two years into the process, there are plenty of reasons for concern: the amount of financing raised so far is unlikely to be sufficient, and not all countries have (2)….data to measure progress on the ground. It is enough to test even the most diehard (3)….But there is still plenty of reason for hope. I recently visited Colombia, which, at long last, is leaving behind its decades-long civil conflict with the (4)….Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and setting itself up for SDG success.
In any country, achieving the SDGs will require government, business, aid agencies, multilateral banks, and civil society to work together, adopt flexible approaches, share knowledge, measure progress effectively, and recognize that the various targets are interconnected. Colombia seems to understand this, and is (5)….an (6)…. approach that leverages the strengths of each actor.
Start with government. According to Colombia’s finance minister, Mauricio Cárdenas Santamaría, the country is localizing the SDGs through the planning department, using the SDG framework to guide reforms relating to the implementation of the peace agreement with the FARC, OECD (7)…., the National Development Plan, and the Paris climate agreement.
Meanwhile, Cárdenas points out, Colombia’s policymakers are taking care to highlight the benefits of these efforts – in areas ranging from health care and education to employment – for the public. They recognize that a top-down approach will not work: to achieve the SDGs, all levels of the government, economy, and society must feel connected to the goals, understanding the (8)….impact that achieving them will have.To get business on board, the Bogotá Chamber of Commerce, led by Monica de Greiff, is raising awareness of the SDGs among its 640,000 members and providing skills training in sectors like construction and health care. The aim is to achieve the SDGs’ targets while increasing the economy’s overall competitiveness.
The good news is that, as Bruce MacMaster of the Bogotá-based business advocacy and think tank ANDI noted, businesses have a strong incentive to (9)….the gains of the peace process, especially in remote areas that have (10)….been cut off from government services. And, indeed, in Medellín, once the illicit drug capital of the world, the leaders of small and large businesses with whom I met are already integrating the SDGs into their business plans and supply chains.

  1. 1) abstracted
    2) sluggishness
    3) ambitious
    4) depreciator
    5) calm

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: ambitious – having or showing a strong desire and determination to succeed.
  2. 1) apportioned
    2) defamer
    3) adequate
    4) quiescence
    5) asunder

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: adequate – satisfactory or acceptable in quality or quantity.
  3. 1) optimist
    2) censor
    3) discrete
    4) sovereign
    5) sundered

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: optimist – hopeful and confident about the future.
  4. 1) distant
    2) isolated
    3) embodied
    4) stagnation
    5) Revolutionary

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5)
    Explanation: Revolutionary – involving or causing a complete or dramatic change.
  5. 1) repel
    2) pursuing
    3) torpidity
    4) conspicuous
    5) dissuade

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: pursuing – follow or chase (someone or something).
  6. 1) intangible
    2) abstract
    3) integrated
    4) stasis
    5) evacuation

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: integrated – (of an institution, body, etc.) desegregated, especially racially.
  7. 1) accession
    2) torpor
    3) withdrawal
    4) distinguish
    5) queer

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: accession – the attainment or acquisition of a position of rank or power.
  8. 1) prominent
    2) eminent
    3) concrete
    4) bizarre
    5) scattered

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: concrete – existing in a material or physical form; not abstract.
  9. 1) phenomenal
    2) incredible
    3) prodigious
    4) consolidate
    5) divergent

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: consolidate – make (something) physically stronger or more solid.
  10. 1) partitioned
    2) halves
    3) astonishing
    4) atypical
    5) traditionally

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5)
    Explanation: traditionally – as part of a long-established custom, practice, or belief; typically.

 

Direction: In the passage given below there are 6 blanks, each followed by a word given in bold. Every blank has four alternative words given in options (A),(B),(C) and (D). You have to tell which word will best suit the respective blank. Mark (E) as your answer if the work given in bold after the blank is your answer i.e “No change required

It was this private pondering, rather than the actual possession of a secret, that seemed crucial to health and well-being. People who reported thinking about their secrets less often than once a week over the course of the previous month had an average health index of 66 out of 100, compared with 49 for those who thought about their secrets every day. Similarly, those who thought little about their secrets had well-being scores close to zero, while those who thought about them a lot scored -2.

The types and numbers of secrets kept by members of these two contrasting groups, those who thought regularly about their secrets and those who did not, were not materially different. That their reactions to those secrets differed is therefore puzzling. Dr Slepian favours psychological explanations for the damage secrets do, such as the idea that they sometimes (1)        (confidence) unresolved issues, which thus (2)       (withdraw)  on thinking. But that neither explains the different responses nor gets to the heart of the matter. If keeping secrets is beneficial—which, (3)    (conjecturally), it often is—evolution might have been expected to have weeded out those who suffer as a consequence of doing so.

Perhaps such weeding is a work in progress, for deep secrecy of the sort people engage in becomes both possible and necessary only once language has come into being, and language is, itself, a recent evolutionary phenomenon. In the meantime, at least one human organisation (4)      (fulfill)  how to benefit from the burden imposed by secrecy. The Roman Catholic sacrament of penance and (5)        (accordance), commonly called confession, is a perfect response. It offers to lift that burden in a procedure that, though not cost free to the (6)     (reverend) is, itself, completely secret.

Snipers point out that IMF forecasts have been far from perfect. Some glitches are excusable. In the spring of 1990, it predicted that Kuwait’s economy would grow by 0.8% that year. It actually (7)       (alightly) 26%. The IMF’s model did not allow for an Iraqi invasion. But other errors are less easily explained: between 1990 and 2007, the IMF’s spring forecasts underestimated global growth in 13 of the 18 years, in large part because it failed to (8)      (discerned)  the spectacular rise of China.

Since the financial crisis, however, the IMF (9)         (have had) to revise down its forecasts over time every year since 2010 (see chart). The fund’s spring forecasts for the coming year have turned out to be over-optimistic in the past three years.

Christine Lagarde, the IMF’s boss, recently (10)       (relinquish) that economic growth in the past six years has been “disappointing”, but held firm in her belief that the world economy was turning. Hence the positive revision to its global GDP forecast—albeit by just a tenth of a percentage point.

The global economy may still (11)       (fluctuated) for a number of reasons. Ms Lagarde worries the rich world will suffer “self-inflicted wounds” from poor policy choices, notably on trade. Political uncertainty abounds. Just hours before the IMF released the WEO came the surprising news of a/an (12)         (imminent) election in Britain. The known unknowns hardly help, either. Mr Trump’s fiscal policies, for example, are far from firm plans—Maurice Obstfeld, the IMF’s chief economist, calls them “a work in progress”.

  1. A) firm
    B) distress
    C) serenity
    D) concern
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
      Option D
  2. A) infringe
    B) intrude
    C) interlope
    D) pry
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
      Option B
  3. A) theoretically
    B) perhaps
    C) ostensibly
    D) presumably
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
      Option ED
  4. A) completed
    B) finished
    C) has completed
    D) has worked out
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
      Option D
  5. A) harmony
    B) pardon
    C) reconciliation
    D) arbitration
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
      Option C
  6. A) priest
    B) confessor
    C) victim
    D) pastor
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
      Option B
  7. A) short by
    B) sort by
    C) fell by
    D) dropped to
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
      Option C
  8. A) provide
    B) fear
    C) prognosticate
    D) forsee
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
      Option D
  9. A) has has
    B) has been
    C) has being
    D) has had
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
      Option D
  10. A) recognized
    B) conceded
    C) condoned
    D) conformed
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
      Option B
  11. A) stutter
    B) totter
    C) pause
    D) falter
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
      Option D
  12. A) coming
    B) close
    C) looming
    D) nigh
    E) No correction required

    View Answer
    Option E

Directions (1-10): In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed in the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blanks appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

April 26  is World Intellectual Property (IP) day. Over the years, global IP –(1)– have steadily expanded beyond  World Trade Organisation (WTO) requirements, thanks to free trade agreements such as the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) which India is currently –(2)— with its trading partners. But  there is new cause for worry. Apart from increasing the scope of existing IP rights, there is a move to create new IP-like rights. A case in point is data exclusivity over clinical trial data submitted by drug companies to the regulatory authorities for market approval, the grant of which could severely undermine access to medicines.The propensity to expand the universe of IP is not new: businesses have demanded patent protection for the way they do business; motorcycle manufacturers have got into dispute  over the trademark on the exhaust sound of motorcycles; and animal activists have fought for copyright in a selfie taken by a monkey. IP in the modern world defies definition, transcends boundaries and has become synonymous with ascribing value to things that we don’t fully understand. The issue of whether India should offer data exclusivity — one of the key issues discussed in the RCEP — is tied to our understanding of what amounts to IP and whether we are obliged to protect it.

Data exclusivity prevents drug –(3)— from referring to or relying on data submitted by an originator company relating to a drug’s safety and —(4)— while approving bioequivalent versions of the same drug, i.e. therapeutically equivalent generics and biosimilars for a fixed period of time. A drug that comes to the market for the first time undergoes extensive pre clinical and clinical trials on animals initially and human beings later before it is introduced for public use — a  time-consuming and expensive process. Developed countries, on behalf of their pharmaceutical lobbies, seek data exclusivity in developing countries arguing that this is necessary to recognise and incentivise the efforts put in to bring a new drug to the market along with recovering the research and development  costs incurred — arguments similar to those used to justify the grant of patents. However, such exclusivity would prevent market entry of generic versions of the drug, which could be —(5)— to the larger public interest. Pharmaceutical companies have been pushing  for data exclusivity to prolong  already existing —(6)— and delay competition from generics even after the expiry of the 20-year patent term or to gain exclusivity on non-patented drugs. In India, such a system may negate the impact of Section 3(d) of the Patents Act, which disallows evergreening patents. With data exclusivity, a company could nevertheless gain exclusive rights over such drugs even though they are not patented. This is because during the period of exclusivity, regulators are barred from using the originators’ data to grant marketing approval to generics; generic companies would then be required to repeat the entire cycle of clinical trials already conducted instead of merely establishing bioequivalence to prove efficacy. As seen  in countries where data exclusivity is granted, generic companies do not undertake such clinical trials and their versions of the drug accordingly stay off the market as long as the period of data exclusivity lasts. With restricted market entry of generics, artificially high drug prices remain which  puts medicines beyond public reach. Apart from the financial costs,  repeated clinical trials on human subjects raise ethical and moral concerns.Unlike in the West,  India does not offer data exclusivity and allows bioequivalent generics to be registered based on, among other things, trial data available in the —(7)—- domain.

The argument that clinical trial data needs exclusivity in the light of the money expended is an untenable one. Automotive companies spend millions of dollars on data generated in car crash tests to  ensure passenger and —(8)—- safety.  Automotive companies have not made any —(9)— claim on the data generated, yet. Unlike automotive companies which use crash test dummies, pharmaceutical companies that test their drugs on human subjects have a greater obligation to make the data public and IP-free. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)  does not mandate data exclusivity. Providing data exclusivity is a TRIPS-plus measure. According IP-like protection to data exclusivity is not advisable for three reasons.

First, it is an absolute protection granted without any institutional check  such as opposition and revocation as available in other forms of IP and ends up as an irrevocable exclusivity to the originator. Second, the U.S. Supreme Court in Mayo v. Prometheus, 132 S. Ct. 1289 (2012) has excluded —(10)— protection to biological correlations,  terming it as an extension of natural laws. Extending IP-like protection to clinical observations — the primary objective of data exclusivity — will open a window to claim exclusivity in a subject matter traditionally excluded under patent law. Third, offering IP-like exclusivity solely on the basis of money spent in regulatory testing will set a bad precedent for other industries  that may now claim an IP when there is none.

Q1.

(a) assembly

(b) values

(c) standards

(d) morals

(e) mortal

Q2.

(a) fighting

(b) demonstrating

(c) assembling

(d) neglecting

(e) negotiating

Q3.

(a) regulators

(b) addict

(c) conflict

(d) usurp

(e) manufacturer

Q4.

(a) inefficient

(b) efficacy

(c) danger

(d) security

(e) adrenal

Q5.

(a) appealing

(b) hazardous

(c) beneficial

(d) detrimental

(e) acceptable

Q6.

(a) monocytes

(b) monotony

(c) monogamous

(d) monogamy

(e) monopoly

Q7.

(a) personal

(b) public

(c) private

(d) particular

(e) patriarch

Q8.

(a) pedestrian

(b) perennial

(c) peripheral

(d) peripheral

(e) parochial

Q9.

(a) propensity

(b) property

(c) proper

(d) proprietary

(e) propitious

Q10.

(a) patient

(b) patent

(c) petulant

(d) petal

(e) pertinent

Directions (11-15): In each of the following questions a related pair of words is followed by four pairs of words or phrases. Select the pair that best expresses a relationship similar to the one expressed in the question pair.

Q11. ARBORETUM : PLANTS

(a) menagerie : animals

(b) field : grass

(c) botany : herbs

(d) grotesque : jokes

(e) None of these

Q12. DIABETES : DISEASE

(a) blood : heart

(b) pen : tool

(c) sorcery : spirits

(d) novel : prose

(e) None of these

Q13. CHRONOMETER : ERGOMETER

(a) sequence : energy

(b) color : voltage

(c) time : work

(d) revolution : illumination

(e) None of these

Q14. BEER :BARLEY

(a) whiskey : corn

(b) bourbon : hops

(c) bread : yeast

(d) vodka : grapes

(e) None of these

Q15. FUSTY : MUSTY

(a) fetish : aversion

(b) bias : disinterested

(c) noisome : fetid

(d) predisposition : fairness

(e) None of these

Solutions

S1. Ans.(c)

Sol. Standards fits in the context of the sentence correctly. “Global IP standards” is correct phrase, other options are irrelevant.

S2. Ans.(e)

Sol. Negotiating- fits in the context of the sentence correctly. RCEP is negotiating with its trading partners. other options are irrelevant.

S3. Ans.(a)

Sol. regulator-a person or body that supervises a particular industry or business activity. regulator-fits in the context of the sentence correctly

S4. Ans.(b)

Sol. efficacy-the ability to produce a desired or intended result. efficacy-fits in the context of the sentence correctly.

S5. Ans.(d)

Sol.   detrimental-tending to cause harm. Other options are irrelevant.

S6. Ans.(e)

Sol. monopoly-the exclusive possession or control of the supply of or trade in a commodity or service.

“Monopoly of Pharmaceutical companies”. hence, monopoly is appropriate word.

S7. Ans.(b)

Sol. “trial data available in the PUBLIC domain.” Public is appropriate word.

S8. Ans.(a)

Sol. Automotive companies spend millions of dollars on data generated in car crash tests to ensure passenger and pedestrian safety.  Use of the word pedestrian is appropriate.

S9. Ans.(d)

Sol. proprietary-relating to an owner or ownership.

“Automotive companies have not made any proprietary/ownership claim on the data generated, yet”. hence, this word correctly fits in the context of the sentence correctly.

S10. Ans.(b)

Sol. patent-a government authority or licence conferring a right or title for a set period, especially the sole right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention. ‘patent’ is appropriate word and complete the meaning of the sentence correctly.

S11. Ans.(a)

Sol. arboretum is botanical garden – plants (for study) or display – menagerie is a collection of animals (for display)

S12. Ans.(b)

Sol. Diabetes is a type of disease; pen is type of tool.

S13. Ans.(c)

Sol. chronometer (clock) measures time; ergometer measures work done.

S14. Ans.(a)

Sol. Beer is made from barley; whisky is made from corn (corn, rye or barley).

S15. Ans.(c)

 

Sol. Fusty and musty are synonyms; noisome and fetid are synonyms.

 

The frail nature of rural India’s health systems and the..(1)..patient load on a few..(2)..hospitals have become even more evident from the crisis at the Baba Raghav Das Medical College in Gorakhpur. The institution has come under the spotlight after reports emerged of the death of several children over a short period, although epidemics and a high mortality level are chronic features here. Medical infrastructure in several surrounding districts and even neighbouring States is so weak that a large number of very sick patients are sent to such apex hospitals as a last resort. The..(3)..aspects of the system are..(4)..from the Comptroller and Auditor General’s report on reproductive and child health under the National Rural Health Mission for the year ended March 2016. Even if the audit objections on financial administration were to be ignored, the picture that emerges in several States is one of inability to..(5)..the funds allocated, shortage of staff at primary health centres (PHCs), community health centres (CHCs) and district hospitals, lack of essential medicines, broken-down equipment and unfilled doctor vacancies. In the case of Uttar Pradesh, the CAG found that about 50% of the PHCs it..(6)..did not have a doctor, while 13 States had significant levels of vacancies. Basic facilities in the form of health sub-centres, PHCs and CHCs met only half the need in Bihar, Jharkhand, Sikkim, Uttarakhand and West Bengal, putting pressure on a ..(7)..of referral institutions such as the Gorakhpur hospital.
Templates for an upgraded rural health system have long been finalised and the Indian Public Health Standards were issued in 2007 and 2012, covering facilities from health sub-centres upwards. The Centre has set..(8)..health goals for 2020 and is in the process of deciding the financial..(9)..for various targets under the National Health Mission, including reduction of the infant mortality rate to 30 per 1,000 live births, from the recent..(10)..of 40.

  1. 1) shatterable
    2) brittle
    3) extraordinary
    4) crisp
    5) shivery

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3) 
     Explanation: extraordinary – very unusual or remarkable.
  2. 1) referral
    2) elementary
    3) facile
    4) lucid
    5) walkover

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: referral – an act of referring someone or something for consultation, review, or further action.
  3. 1) dysfunctional
    2) intact

    3) harmed

    4)  instability
    5) disequilibrium

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: dysfunctional – not operating normally or properly.
  4. 1) unscathed
    2) disequilibration

    3) evident
    4) assets

    5) receipts
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: evident – clearly seen or understood; obvious.
  5. 1) disputable
    2) vague
    3) harvest
    4) absorb
    5) drawings

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4) 

    Explanation: absorb – take in or soak up (energy or a liquid or other substance) by chemical or physical action.

  6. 1) audited
    2) obscure

    3) proceeds

    4) payoff
    5) revenue

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: audited – conduct an official financial inspection of (a company or its accounts).
  7. 1) astasia
    2) gravy
    3) compensation
    4) handful
    5)  commission

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4) 

    Explanation: handful – a quantity that fills the hand.

  8. 1) honorarium
    2) ambitious
    3) content
    4) avails

    5) withdraw
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: ambitious – having or showing a strong desire and determination to succeed.
  9. 1) deduct
    2) fulfilled
    3) withhold
    4) detract
    5) outlay

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5)
    Explanation: outlay – an amount of money spent on something.
  10. 1) unassuming
    2) estimate
    3) satisfied

    4) diminish

    5) decrease

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: estimate – roughly calculate or judge the value, number, quantity, or extent of.
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