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# Coding Decoding (Old Pattern ) Tricks & Tips

Coding is a system of signals. This is a method of transmitting information in the form of codes or signals without it being known by a third person.
The person who transmits the code or signal, is called the sender and the person who receives it, is called the receiver. Transmitted codes or signals are decoded on the other side by the receiver—this is known as decoding.

Most competitive exams have a dedicated section of Coding –Decoding in Reasoning or Mental Ability. Many of students and readers find difficulty to solve questions based on Coding – Decoding in Mental Aptitude.

The Coding and Decoding Test is set up to judge the candidate’s ability.

GovernmentAdda has uploaded the coding and decoding shortcut methods, Tricks & Rules and Questions with Answers here. Candidates can check and go through it. Coding and decoding tips are very useful to those who are preparing for the attending the bank exam IBPS, SBI, LIC AAO, UPSC, IAS, CAT, XAT, MAT, SSC, GATE, and other competitive exams. We have also published the Solved examples for the coding and decoding aptitude.

Coding is a process of sending a message from master to slave that no other can understand that. Its ability of deciphering the rule and breaking the code. So here we need to find the exact code for the given code.
Most of the candidates will facing the problem to solve it. Also they lose their marks by not attending this question. If aspirants learnt how to the coding and decoding problem then its easy to solve and fast. For that we have clearly described the coding and decoding reasoning tricks. Also we have uploaded the coding decoding shortcuts for the aspirants to learn easily without any stress.

## How To Solve Coding Decoding Questions

1. a) Observe alphabets or numbers given in the code keenly.
2. b) Find the sequence it follows whether it is ascending or descending.
3. c) Detect the rule in which the alphabets/numbers/words follow.
4. d) Fill the appropriate letter/number/word in the blank given.

In questions on codes, a word (basic word) is coded in a particular way and the candidates are asked to code other words in the same way. The coding and decoding tests are set up to judge the candidate’s ability to decipher the rule that has been followed to code a particular word/message and break the code to decipher the message.

The Coding and Decoding is classified into Six types according to the on what way it is doing. They are

1. Letter Coding
2. Number Coding
3. Mixed Coding
4. Mixed Number Coding
5. Decoding
6. Symbols Coding

## 1. Letter Coding –

A particular letter stands for another letter in letter coding.

Eg: If COURSE is coded as FRXUVH, how is RACE coded in that code?

(1) HFDU

(2) UCFH

(3) UDFH

(4) UDHF

(5) UDFG

In the given code, each letter is moved three steps forward than the corresponding letter in the word. So R is coded as U, A as D, C as F, E as H. Hence (3) is the answer.

Learn this table by heart. This is the only shortcut or trick to solve coding – decoding questions fast in Bank exams.

 Alphabets Alphabetical Order Reserve Order A 1 26 B 2 25 C 3 24 D 4 23 E 5 22 F 6 21 G 7 20 H 8 19 I 9 18 J 10 17 K 11 16 L 12 15 M 13 14 N 14 13 O 15 12 P 16 11 Q 17 10 R 18 9 S 19 8 T 20 7 U 21 6 V 22 5 W 23 4 X 24 3 Y 25 2 Z 26 1

1. Number Coding–

In these questions, either numerical code values are assigned to a word or alphabetical code values are assigned to numbers. The candidate is required to analyse the code as per directions.

Case I: When numerical values are assigned to words.

Eg: If in a certain code ROPE is coded as 6821CHAIR is coded as 73456 what will be the code forCRAPE?

(1) 73456

(2) 76421

(3) 77246

(4) 77123

(5) None of these

Clearly, in the given code, the alphabets are coded as follows.

R   O   P   E   C   H   A   I

6    8   2    1   7    3    4    5

So CRAPE is coded as 76421, So the answer is (2)

Case II: When alphabetical code values are assigned to the numbers.

Eg: In a certain code 3456 is coded as ROPE 15546 is coded as APPLE. Then how is 54613 coded?

(1) RPPEO

(2) ROPEA

(3) POEAR

(4) PAREO

(5) None of these

Clearly in the given figures, the numbers are coded as follows.

3    4    5     6     1     4

R   O    P    E     A    L

So 54613 is coded as POEAR. The answer is (3)

1. Mixed Coding –

In this type of question, three or four complete messages are given in the coded language and the code for a particular word is asked.

To analyse such codesany two messages bearing the common word are picked up. The common code word will mean that word. Proceeding similarly by picking up all possible combinations of two messages the entire message can be analysed.

Eg: If tee see pee means drink fruit juicesee kee lee means juice is sweet, and lee ree mee means he is  intelligent, which word in that language means sweet?

(1) see

(2) kee

(3) lee

(4) pee

(5) tee

In the first and the second statements the common word is juice and the common code word is see. So seemeans juice. In the second and the third statements, the common word is ‘is’ and the common code is lee. So lee means is. Thus in the second statement, the remaining word sweet is coded as kee. Hence the answer is (2).

1. Mixed Number Coding–

In this type of questions, three or four complete messages are given in the coded language and the code number for a particular word is asked.

Eg: If in a certain code language, 851 means good sweet fruit783 means good red rose and 341 meansrose and fruit which of the following digits stands for sweet in that language?

(1) 8

(2) 5

(3) 1

(4) 3

(5) None of these

In the first and the second statements, the common code digit is and the common word is good. Sostands for good. In the first and the third statements, the common code digit is and the common word is fruit. So stands for fruit. Therefore in the first statement, stands for sweet. Hence the answer is (2).

1. Decoding –

In these questions, artificial or code values are assigned to a word or a group of words and the candidate is required to find out the original words.

Eg: If in a certain language FLOWER is written as EKNVDQ, what will be written as GNTRD?

(1) HEOUS

(2) HOUES

(3) HUOSE

(4) HOUSE

(5) None of these

Each letter of the word is one step ahead of the corresponding letter of the code.

E K N V D Q                  G N T R D

F  L O W E R                  H O U S E

Thus HOUSE is written as GNTRD, So the answer is (4)

1. Symbols Coding–

This is a kind of coding recently included in the Reasoning section. In this type of questions either alphabetical code values are assigned to symbols or symbols are assigned to alphabets. The candidate is required to analyse the code as per direction.

Eg: 1. In a certain code ‘TOME’ is written as ‘ @ \$ * ? ‘ and ARE is written as ‘ • £ ? ’ How can ‘REMOTE’ be written in that code?

(1) £ ? • \$ @ ?

(2) @ ? * \$ @ ?

(3) £ ? * \$ @ ?

(4) Cannot be determined

(5) None of these

Sol: From the data we have

T – @

O – \$

M – *

E – ?

A – •

R – £

E – ?

Hence REMOTE is coded as £ ? * \$ @ ? So (3) is the answer.

# How to Solve Letter Shifting Problems in Coding Decoding

In Letter Shifting Problems in Coding Decoding, we just need to find the relationship between one pair of words. From this we will get the key to the code code. We need to use these codes to apply it on the question.

Let us understand this better with an example.

If in a certain code SENSITIVE is written as UAPOKPKRG, then how will HYDROGEN be written in the same code?

⇒ First we need to find the relationship between SENSITIVE and UAPOKPKRG.

Check relationship of the first letter of the first word and the first letter of the second word i.e. we compare ‘S’ with ‘U’. ‘U’ is two letters after ‘S’ in the alphabet (ABCD… XYZ). So, we can represent this as,

Similarly check relationship of E and A. ‘E’ is 4 letters after ‘A’. So we can represent this as,

Similarly, checking for each letter like this we get the final relation as follows.

So the relation was a pattern of alternate +2 and -4. Now we need to apply this pattern on HYDROGEN, so we get,

Hence the code for HYDROGEN will be JUFNQCGJ.

Pro-Tip 1:
These options are best solved using the options in the given questions to give you an idea. Do not spend too much time trying to solve the code without first looking at the options. Keep comparing your code with the options with each letter. Sometimes you don’t even need to solve the entire problem; the correct answer becomes visible within the first few letters. These types of problems should not take up too much of your time in the paper.

### Types of Letter Shifting Problems in Coding Decoding

There are three types of letter shifting problems in Coding Decoding –

1. We have seen the first type where the first letter of the first word is coded as the first letter of the second (coded) word, the second letter of the first word is coded as the second letter of the second word, the third with the third and so on.
1. The second type is instead of shifting each letter, letters are moved within the word like REASONING is coded as ASREONGNI.
1. In the third type letters are shifted in the alphabet as well as their positions in the word are moved, such as CHEMISTRY is coded as, HIEPHKBSV.

So we need to realize which type of letter shifting problem it is, and then find the pattern used and finally apply the same pattern on required word.

Pro-Tip 2:

If you find yourself confused about which letter is mapped to which coded letter, try to find letters close to the given letter. Like in the above example, from “C”, it is closer to “E” than to “H” or “I”. It is also close to “B”. So we should check both cases, where, “C” is mapped to “E” and where “C” is mapped to “B”. Make separate diagrams for both. Eliminate the one that doesn’t work. Then proceed with the one that does. In case, the closer letters don’t work, try to see if the other letters form any code.

# Shortcut to Solve Coding Decoding in Fictitious Language

Solving Coding Decoding in Fictitious Language problems look hard but are among the easiest to solve. They are usually pretty straightforward and are thus scoring. These questions generally appear for 5 marks in almost all banking and other competitive exams. Expect them in IBPS Clerk, SBI Clerk, IBPS PO, SBI PO, SSC CGL, Placement Aptitude, and others.

Let us see how to solve problems on coding decoding in fictitious language quickly and easily.

## Example of Coding Decoding in Fictitious Language

Consider the question –  In a certain code language:

1)  ‘You are welcome’ is coded as ‘tip ab as’,

2)  ‘He ate very sweet’ is coded as ‘an oh ap ol’,

3)  ‘What is sweet’ is coded as ‘ak da al’,

4)  ‘He welcome sweet people’ is coded as ‘do oh tip al’.

So what is code for each word?

Seems confusing right? But let us see the shortcut to solving coding decoding in fictitious language.

## Steps Involved in Solving Coding Decoding in Fictitious Language

Step I:

Write words and their codes as given in the question in straight line with an arrow in middle. So we get,

Step II:

Find the common words and their corresponding codes. Encircle each pair with the same shape.

1. ‘Welcome’ is a common word in 1st and 4th Its corresponding common code is ‘tip’ (as only ‘tip’ is common code in statement 1st and 4th) so we will make square  around ‘welcome’ and ‘tip’.
2. ‘Sweet’ is common word in 2nd, 3rd and 4th statement and its corresponding common code is ‘al’. So we will make an oval  around ‘sweet’ and ‘al’.
3. ‘He’ is common word in 2nd and 4th statement and its corresponding common code is ‘oh’. So we make a triangle  around ‘he’ and ‘oh’.

Note: ‘Sweet’ and its code ‘al’ is present in statement 2nd and 4th along with ‘he’ and its code ‘oh’. Don’t get confused. Code for ‘sweet’ will be ‘al’ as it is present in statement 3rd also. So read all statements before encircling.

So the final diagram will look like this.

Now we can tell each word and its corresponding code

1. welcome → tip
2. he → oh
3. sweet → al
4. people → do (only word and code left in statement 4)

Step III:

1. Code for ‘you’ and ‘are’ can be either ‘ab’ or ‘as’
2. Code for ‘ate’ and ‘very’ can be either ‘an’ or ‘ap’
3. Code for ‘what and ‘is’ can be either ‘ak’ or ‘da’

That means we cannot determine exact code for ‘you’, ‘are’, ‘ate’, ‘very’, ‘what’ and ‘is’ as there are two possible codes for each word.

Tip: Code for word not given in question statement will be something different from codes given in question statements.

Coding is a process in which a word, a number, or a series of combination of words and numbers is expressed in a particular code or pattern based on various rules. You have to answer the questions based on these set of rules.

Decoding is the process of (interpreting) deciphering the coded pattern and reverting it to its original form from the given codes. Hence, you are required to understand the logic behind the coding pattern and then apply this logic to find answers.

Handy Tips:

1. Letter positions as per English Alphabet Series: (A=1, B=2, C=3, D=4…….Y=25, Z=26). To learn this, remember a shortcut for the position of letters i.e. EJOTY where E=5, J=10, O=15, T=20 & Y=25)
2. Letter positions as per reverse English Alphabet Series (A=26, B=25, C=24 …., Z=1)
3. Corresponding letter of each letter i.e., the pair of letters at the same distance from start and end of the English Alphabet Series (A is opposite to Z; B is opposite to Y, and C is opposite to X and so on) and to learn this one can use different acronyms for e.g. for AZ –> AZar; BY –> BYe; CX–> CruX; DW–>DeW and so on.This topic can be divided in to the following subtopics based on the logic incorporated:

(I) Coding – Decoding by Letter Shifting:

In this method, one or more English words are given with their respective codes. The coding is based on shifting the positions of the individual letters based on their place in the English Alphabet. You have to identify a common pattern and apply the same pattern to the word in the question to find its code or apply the reverse pattern to the given code to find the original word.

Check the Bank PO and SSC CGL Mock Test Series:

Example 1:

In a certain code ‘MONARCHY’ is written as ‘NPOBSDIZ’. How will ‘STANDARD’ be written in that code?

Solution:

In this question, each letter of ‘MONARCHY’ is simply replaced by its next letter as per English Alphabet.

M + 1 = N;

O + 1 = P;

N + 1 = O;

A + 1 = B;

R + 1 = S;

C + 1 = D;

H + 1 = I;

Y + 1 = Z.

Based on similar pattern, code for ‘STANDARD’ is ‘TUBOEBSE’.

Let’s take a slightly more complicated example.
Example 2:

In a certain code ‘ARCHERY’ is written as ‘DSBGZSF’. How will the word ‘TERMITE’ be written in that code?

Solution and Steps Involved:

1. Write down the letters in one line and its code in the line below.

2. Analyze the coding pattern by matching the code with the word.

We can see that the word has been divided into three parts, where letters of the first and third parts are increased by 1 position and then reversed among themselves while the lone letter in the middle part is decreased by 1.

NOTE:
Here increasing or decreasing by ‘n’ place means, exchanging the current letter with a letter that is ‘n’ places to the right or left, respectively, in the English Alphabet.

3. Once the pattern has been identified, find the code for the word asked in the question:

Hence, code for TERMITE is ‘SFULFUJ’

Variations:

a. Just the jumbling of letters with no substitution by any other letter: The jumbling can be done directly or by dividing the given word in multiple parts and jumbling each part separately.

Try It Yourself 1 (TIY1):

In a certain code ‘COUNTERS’ is written as ‘SRETNUOC’. Then find out how ‘CLEARING’ is written in that code language?

(a) CGLNEIAR   (b) GNIRCLEA   (c) GRINGACLE   (d) CLEANRIG   (e) GNIRAELC

Try It Yourself 2 (TIY2):

In a certain code ‘STRATEGIC’ is written as ‘TSARTGECI’. Then find out how ‘STIPULATE’ is written in that code language?

(a) USTIPALET   (b) PLATEUSTI   (c) TSPIUALET   (d) PULATESIT   (e) TIPSUATEL

b. Just the shifting of letters, which can be done in any pattern:

(i) Shifting of all the letters by a constant value.

Try It Yourself 3 (TIY3):

If VXUPLVH is written as SURMISE, what is OHPRQ the code for?

(a) LEMON          (b) OPENS           (c) MELON          (d) NAMED         (e) RKSUT

(ii) Shifting of all letters by an increasing or decreasing value.

TIY 4:

In a certain code language, the word ‘NEATLY’ is written as ‘WORDCQ’ and the word PRAISE is written as ‘CVGDPS’. How will the word ‘SUMMIT’ be written in that code language?

(a) PSVRLK          (b) VSPKLR          (c) RLKPSV          (d) KLRVSP          (e) None of these

c. Jumbling of letters as well as shifting of the letters:

(i) Both the processes may be followed in the whole word. (as seen in Solved Example 2.)

(ii) It can also be that jumbling is done in one part and shifting is done in another part.

TIY 5:

In a certain code, ‘GRANDEST’ is written as ‘NARGFHWY’. Then what is the code for ‘MOTHERLY’?

(a)ORXMGUPD (b)HTOMGUPD   (c)HTOMYLRE   (d)YLREHTOM   (e)None of these

(II) Coding Letters of a Word:

In these questions, the letters of one or more words are coded in terms of symbols/digits/other letters. You have to identify the code of the individual letter by comparing and based on this, find out the code for given word.

Types:

A. There is a one to one relation between letters and the code, which you can identify by just comparing letters with the code of same place value.

Example 3:

In a certain code ‘CAMPHOR’ is written as ‘6\$3#152’ and ‘SAKE’ is written as ‘@\$98’. How is ‘MORSE’ written in that code language?

Solution and Steps Involved:

1. Write down letters and codes corresponding to their position.

2. Check common letters in given words and their codes.

3. If the common letter has same code each time, highlight the letters that are part of the word that has been asked in the question.

 C → 6 S → @ A → \$ A → \$ M → 3 K → 9 P → # E → 8 H → 1 O → 5 R → 2

4. Rewrite the word in the question and corresponding codes below each letter. (Remember here order of letters will matter.)

 M O R S E 3 5 2 @ 8

Hence, the code for ‘MORSE’ is ‘352@8’.

Variations:

a. Letters are coded as other letters without any letter shifting or jumbling. These may appear tough as you might be looking for letter shifting patterns. But there is only direct correspondence between the letters of the word and the letters of the code and no other relationship exists.

Example 4:

If CARING is coded as MPDRGF, and SHARES is coded as XLPDUX, how could CASKET be possibly coded in

the same code?

(a) MPXBUN    (b) MXPGUN      (c) MPDDUX   (d) LMPGFR    (e) FGRDXP

Solutions and Steps Involved:

1. First establish correspondence.

2. Find the common codes.

3. If the common letter has same code each time, highlight the letters that are part of the word that has been asked in the question.

4. Rewrite the word in the question and corresponding codes below each letter. (Remember here order of letters will matter.)

5. If there are letters in the question word whose codes you can’t find, then leave them blank.

 C A S K E T M P X U

6. For the possible answer, check the options. The blank spaces must not be filled with any of the remaining codes from the given question. It must be filled with new codes. There will be only one such answer. In the given question, the blank spaces cannot be filled with D,R,G,F or L.

From the given options, we can see that the answer is

NOTE: When asked to find a possible code, remember that there is no need to find the exact code. In fact, there may be many possible correct codes. You just need to find the code among the options that could be a fit. This can be accomplished by finding the codes of the letters that are definitely there. And the rest of the code can be found out by removing the letters that shouldn’t be in the code. Then find the correct code from the options.

b. When the positions do not strictly correspond one to one.

TIY 6:

The entities in the code are not necessarily in the same order as the letters in the word for which they stand. If the first two words given on the left are coded as the words given on the right, which of the following could be a possible code for the third word?

RENT                             zqtf
RIDE

(a) ptbq   (b) ztof   (c) mtaf   (d) ftcz   (e) None of these

B. This is the extension of the first type. In this logic, a string of letters and a string of same number of codes (both numeric and symbols) is given right below it. A set of conditions are provided to follow while answering the questions. You have to code the word given in the question as per the given conditions.

Example 5:

In the below question a group of letters or word is given followed by some conditions. You have to find the code for the word based on the following letter coding system.

 Letters M L E G S K R U B W C H I A P Digit/Symbol 4 8 \$ 1 # 5 7 © 2 6 % ⋆ 3 9 @

Conditions:

(i) If the first letter is a vowel and the last letter is a consonant, both are to be coded as the code for the consonant.

(ii) If both the first and the last letters are consonants, both are to be coded as ®.

(iii) If the first letter is a consonant and the last letter is a vowel the codes for first and last letters are to be interchanged.

Find the code for ‘BELGIUM’

Solution and Steps Involved:

1. Write down the given word and identify the nature of its first and last letter.

2. Identify the condition that goes with it.

Here, the first and the last letters are both consonants, so we need to apply condition (ii).

3. Write down the code as per given seriesThe code of the word as per given conditions:

 B E L G I U M 2 \$ 8 1 3 © 4

4. Apply the condition identified above to get the final answer.On applying condition (ii), we have to change the codes for the first and the last letter as ®.Hence, code for ‘BELGIUM’ ⇒ ® \$ 8 1 3 © ®

Variations:

a. The conditions might be given for letters other than the first and the last letter.

TIY 7,8,9:

In the question below, a group of letters or word is given followed by some conditions. You have to find the code for the word based on the following letter coding system.

 Letters M L E G S K R U B W C H I A P Digit/Symbol 4 8 \$ 1 # 5 7 © 2 6 % ⋆ 3 9 @

Conditions:

(i) if more than two vowels are there in the group of letters, all vowels are to be coded as ‘€’

(ii) if third letter is a consonant, code the letter as ‘b’.

(iii) if fifth letter is a vowel, code the letter as ‘d’

Now find the code for

TIY 7: AGUMKE
TIY 8: BEWSMU
TIY 9: KGAPUB

b. The conditions might be given on position values of letters in the English Alphabet instead of them being Vowels and Consonants.

TIY 10,11,12:

In the below question a group of letters or word is given followed by some conditions. You have to find the code for the word based on the following letter coding system.

 Letters M L E G S K R U B W C H I A P Digit/Symbol 4 8 \$ 1 # 5 7 © 2 6 % ⋆ 3 9 @

Conditions:

(i) if the sum of positions of first and second letters of the word is 8 then both are to be coded as ‘Ò’

(ii) if product of positions of letters at even positions of the word are 24 then they are to be coded as ‘d’

(iii) if difference of positions of third and fifth letters of the word is 8 then they are to be coded as ‘€’

Now find the code for

TIY 10: WHKPAC
TIY 11: BRGSAU
TIY 12: HBRMCI

(III) Coding by Analogy:

Analogy means ‘correspondence’. In the coding questions based on analogy, a relationship is given between entities and another relationship or expression has to be identified/calculated based on this analogy. Analogy is meant to test one’s ability to reason and follow certain rules.

Types:

A. In these types of questions, mathematical operators are coded as some letters or numbers. Subsequently, a mathematical expression is given with letters or numbers written between the numbers. You have to calculate the value of the expression based on the given conditions.

Example 6:

If ‘Q’ denotes ‘×’; ‘R’ denotes ‘-’, ‘T’ denotes ‘÷’ and ‘W’ denotes ‘+’, then find the value of the expression 20R12T4Q6W5.

Solution and Steps Involved:

1) Write down the given expression as it is and write down the rules so that you don’t need to refer the question again and again

Given expression is: 20R12T4Q6W5

The relations are as following:

 Q R T W Denotes × – ÷ +

2) Replace the letters/numbers/operators as per given relations.

On substituting the letters as per the given rules, the expression becomes:

20 – 12 ÷ 4 × 6 + 5

3) Apply the BODMAS rule to correctly solve the expression to get the final answer.

Solving the above expression using BODMAS rule:

20 – [(12 ÷ 4) × 6] + 5

= 20 – [3 × 6] + 5

= 20 – [18] + 5

= 25 – 18 = 7

Variations:

a.  The relations can be given between a pair of operators instead of letters and operators, for example, ‘+’ is coded as ‘×’; ‘-‘ is coded as ‘÷’, and so on.

Try It Yourself 13 (TIY 13):

If ‘+’ means ‘-’ , ‘-’ means ‘×’, ‘×’ means ‘÷’ and ‘÷’ means ‘+’, then what is the value of ‘38 ÷ 336 ×24 – 2 + 18 =?’

(a) 118             (b) 86               (c) 12               (d) 48               (e) None of these

b.  The relations can be given between symbols and operators, for example, ‘×’ is coded as ‘@’; ‘+’ is coded as ‘\$’, and so on.

TIY 14:

If ‘%’ means ‘´’ , ‘@’ means ‘–’, ‘&’ means ‘+’ and ‘#’ means ‘÷’, then what will be the average of five consecutive even numbers where ‘R’ is the smallest number?

(a) R & 10 # 5     (b) R & 4     (c) 40 # R & 5     (d) (R & 20) # 2     (e) None of these

B.  In this category, successive analogies between many words is given. You need to find the code of the given new word. The code is deciphered by relating the word according to the given conditions.

Example 7:

If ‘red’ means ‘white’, ‘white’ means ‘yellow’, ‘yellow’ means ‘blue’, ‘blue’ means violet’ and ‘violet’ means ‘red’, then which of the following represents the color of mustard flower?

Solution and Steps Involved:

a.  First, you need to know the word you are looking for.

We know that mustard flower is originally of color yellow.

b.  Then check the coding of that word as per the question.

But, in the given question, it is given that in the code ‘white’ stands for ‘yellow’. Therefore the correct answer is ‘white’.

NOTE: In the above example, it is important to avoid two common mistakes. Know which is the code and which is the word. Different wordings give you different ways of understanding the question. If the question reads ‘A’ means ‘B’ then A is the code for the word B. So if we want color B, then we use the code A. We can’t use it the other way around. If the question reads ‘A is B’ then A is the word and B is the code. If the question reads ‘A is called B’ then clearly A is the word and B is the code.
Also, it is important not to follow the trail. Meaning if ‘A is B’, ‘B is C’, ‘C is D’, and you need to find the code for A, then the answer is B and not C or D. In the example above, Your answer ‘yellow’ is coded as ‘white’, and ‘white’ is coded as red and so on. However, we don’t need to look beyond the first relation i.e. code for yellow. Rest of the codes are just there to confuse you.

(IV) Coding decoding based on operations on place value:

In this type of questions, one or more words are given and some numeric value is given against them. You have to find out the relation between place values of letters of that word as per English Alphabet and the number given against it. You have to apply the same relation to find the numeric value of the word asked in the question.

Example 8:

If the code for ‘HEN’ is 27, what will be the code for ‘ASK’?

Solution and Steps Involved:

1) Write down the word given in the question and place value of each of its letters as per the English Alphabet below it.

 H E N 8 5 14 → As per their place in the English Alphabet

2) Try to identify a relation between these position values and the number given against the word.

HEN is given as 27.

We can see, 27 = 8 + 5 + 14.

Hence, we have figured out a relation: The given number is the sum of the place values of the letters according to the English Alphabet.

3) Write down the position values of the letters of the word asked in the question.

 A S K 1 19 11

4) Apply the same relation between the position values of this word to find the final answer.

1 + 19 + 11 = 31

Variations:

a.  The relation can be more complex than just the sum of the position values.

TIY 15:

If Code for ‘RAT’ is ‘9267’, then what is the code for ‘MET’?

TIY 16:

If code for ‘BOY’ is ‘267’ then what is code for ‘GIRL’

(V) Coding – Decoding in Fictitious Language:

In this type of question, two or more statements are given against each of which a string of random codes is given. You need to identify common words between any pair of statements and common codes in their respective strings of codes to find out the codes of these common words. Keep doing this until all such comparisons are exhausted and you have found out the codes for all the words possible.

Example 9:

Directions: In a certain code, ‘calendar contains all holidays’ is coded as ‘si ma kc du’; ‘holidays are real fun’ is coded as ‘si vt gs tm’; ‘juice contains real fruit’ is coded as ‘ma ky gs mk’ and ‘fun and fruit calendar’ is coded as ‘ke lm mk ze’.

How will ‘fruit contains real juice’ be coded in this code language?

Solution and Steps Involved:

1) Write down all the statements and their codes one after another.

2) Pick any two statements which have common word(s) and compare their code strings to find out the common codes between them.

3) Highlight common words and common codes in a unique fashion.

In statements 1 and 2, ‘holidays’ is the common word and ‘si’ is the common code, hence, code for ‘holidays’ is ‘si’ which we have highlighted by drawing a box around them.

4) Continue this process until all such cases are exhausted.

From statement 1 and 3, ‘contains’ is the common word and ‘ma’ is the common code, hence, code for ‘contains’ is ‘ma’ which we have circled.

Similarly, we will compare other pair of statements to find out the codes for rest of the words.

Hence,

Code for ‘fruit’ → ‘mk’

Code for ‘calendar’ → ‘ke’

Code for ‘fun’ → ‘tm’

Code for real’ → ‘gs’

Code for ‘juice’ → ‘ky’ (because only ‘juice’ and ‘ky’ is left in statement 3)
Now pick the words asked in the question and their corresponding words to get the final answer.

Hence, code for ‘fruit contains real juice’ is ‘mk ma gs ky’.

Variations:

a.  In place of the code for whole string, code for individual words might be asked

TIY 17:

In a certain code “res tur dimi wez” means “my pointer was theft”; “soz res lem ner” means “your pointer is here”; “res zet tur lem” means “blue pointer was here” and “dimi res tur soz” means “your pointer was theft”. Which of the following is the code of the word “here”?
(a)  tur             (b)  ner                        (c)  dimi           (d)  lem            (e)  None of these

b.  A code or string of codes might be given and you will need to decode it.

TIY 18:

In a certain code, ‘solution it correct’ is written as ‘fi jb nu’; ‘When is it’ is written as ‘fi  be  vi’; ‘correct for here’ is written as ‘sc to jb’ and ‘here she is ‘ is written as ‘li be to’. What does the code ‘sc’ stand for?
(a) here           (b) for              (c) she             (d) correct       (e) None of these

(V) Coding – Decoding by Pattern Weights:

In this type the letters of the word are assigned weights (values) depending on whether they are vowels/consonants, the number of letters in the word, and the pattern of arrangement. The rest is a one-to-one correspondence. The codes could be repeated.

Example 10:
ONE → (5)(15)(10)
ACT → (10)(5)(15)
WOW → (10)(5)(10)
OUT → (10)(15)(20)
CUT → (35)(20)(5)
MOO → (30)(10)(10)
END → (10)(5)(15)
If the words given above are coded thus, then what should be the code for ‘OWL’?
Solution and Steps Involved:

1) Identify the pattern among the given words. For example, the word (ONE) beginning with and ending with different vowels and with a consonant in the middle is coded as (5)(15)(10). Similarly, the word (WOW) beginning and ending with the same consonant and with a vowel in the middle is coded as (10)(5)(10).

2) Identify the pattern of the question word. And find the word in the list that matches this pattern. In the given question, OWL begins with a vowel and the remaining two letters are different consonants. The word in the list that matches this pattern is END.

3) The code for the matching word is the code required.
So OWL → (10)(5)(15)

Apply these tips to crack the code of Coding and Decoding for bank exams. Good luck!
ANSWER KEY for TRY IT YOURSELF (TIY) in PART 1 and PART 2:

Ques 1. If in a certain language “NIL” is written as “MOHJKM”, then how will “BOND” be written in that language?

a) ACNPOMCE
b) ANCPMOCE
c) ACNPMOCE
d) ACNPMEOC
e) None of The Above

Solution 1.       (Option C)

Trick – Each letter is coded with its left and right letters in English alphabet manner is used.

Ques 2. If in a certain language, “TOP” is written as “OQNPSU”, then how will “SUN” be coded in that language?
a) MOVTRT
b) MOTVRT
c) MOVTTR
d) MOVRTT
e) None of The Above
Solution 2.       (Option B)

Trick – Each letter is coded with its left and right letters in English alphabet manner is used.

Ques 3. If “PKROK” is coded as 72962 and KRRPK as “29972” , then how can “QLSAZ” be coded?
a) 45716
b) 74315
c) 91523

d) 51430
e) None of The Above

Solution 3.       (Option D)
P – 7
K – 2
R – 9
O – 6
K – 2
(From above it shows that P is coded as 7, K is coded as 2, R is coded as 9 and O is coded as 6 that means code of “QLSAZ” does not have either 7, 2, 9, 6 in options. Hence, required code will be 51430, which is given in Option D). In simple words, we can say that the options which does not contain either of 7, 2, 9 and 6 is answer.
Ques 4. If in a certain code language “SIMILAR” is written as “IZORNRH” , then how will “BECTOR” be written in that language?
a) ILGXYV
b) ILGXVY
c) ILXGYV
d) ILXYVG
e) None of The Above

Solution 4.       (Option B)

Trick of Opposite Alphabets is used.

Ques 5. In a certain code language “TIGER” is written as “2097518”, then how will “TENDULKAR” be written in that language?
a) 205144212156212
b) 205144221111182
c) 205144211211118
d) 205144211532522
e) None of The Above
Solution 5.       (Option C)

## Questions With Answers Coding Decoding

1. If in a certain languageCHAMPIONis coded as HCMAIPNO, how can NEGATIVE be coded in that code?

(1) ENAGITEV

(2) NEAGVEIT

(3) MGAETVIE

(4) EGAITEVN

(5) NEGATIEV

1. In a certain languageKINDLEis coded as ELDNIK, how can EXOTIC be coded in that code?

(1) EXOTLC

(2) CXOTIE

(3) COXITE

(4) CITOXE

(5) EOXITC

1. If in a certain languageGAMBLEis coded as FBLCKF, how can FLOWER be coded in that language?

(1) GKPVFQ

(2) EMNXDS

(3) GMPVDS

(4) HNQYGT

(5) EKNVDQ

1. If in a certain languageFASHIONis coded as FOIHSAN, how can PROBLEM be coded in that code?

(1) ROBLEMP

(2) PLEBRUM

(3) PRBOELM

(4) RPBOELM

(5) PELBORM

1. IfFRIENDis coded as HUMJTK, how can CANDLE be written in that code?

(1) EDRIRL

(2) DCQHQK

(3) ESJFME

(4) FYOBOC

(5) DEQJQM

1. If in a certain code,TWENTYis written as 863985 and ELEVEN is written as 323039, how canTWELVE be written in that code?

(1) 863203

(2) 863584

(3) 863903

(4) 863063

(5) None of these

1. IfPALEis coded as 2134EARTH is coded as 41590, how can is PEARL be coded in that language?

(1) 29530

(2) 24153

(3) 25413

(4) 25430

(5) None of these

1. IfROSEis coded as 6821CHAIR is coded as 73456 and PREACH is coded as 961473, what will be the code for SEARCH?

(1) 246173

(2) 214673

(3) 214763

(4) 216473

(5) None of these

1. In a certain codenee tim seemeans how are you ; ble nee see means where are you. What will be the code for where?

(1) nee

(2) tim

(3) see

(4) Cannot be determined

(5) None of these

1. In a certain code languagepit nae tommeans apple is green ; nae ho tap means green and white andho tom ka means shirt is white. Which of the following represents apple in that language?

(1) nae

(2) tom

(3) pit

(4) ho

(5) ka

1. Ifnitco sco tingostands for softer than flower, tingo rho mst stands for sweet flower fragrance andmst sco tmp stands for sweet than smile what would fragrance stand for?

(1) rho

(2) mst

(3) tmp

(4) sco

(5) None of these

1. In a certain code language,743means Mangoes are good657 means Eat good food, and 934means Mangoes are ripe. Which digit means ripe in that language?

(1) 5

(2) 4

(3) 9

(4) 7

(5) Cannot be determined

1. In a certain code,247means spread red carpet,  256 means dust one carpet and 234 means one red carpet which digit in that code means dust?

(1) 2
(2) 3
(3) 5

(4) 6
(5) Cannot say

1. In a certain code language,134means good and tasty478 means see good pictures, and 729means pictures are faint. Which of the following digits stands for see?

(1) 4
(2) 7
(3) 9

(4) 8
(5) None of these

1. In a certain code253means books are old, 546 means man is old and 378 means buy good books. What stands for ‘are’ in that code?

(1) 2
(2) 4
(3) 5

(4) 6
(5) 9

1. In a certain code languageTSSNOFFQis written as STRONGER then GQFDENN will be written as

(1) DOMEERF
(2) FEEDORM
(3) FREEDOM

(4) FREEDMO
(5) None of these

1. IfFULFNHWis the code for CRICKETEULGH will be coded as

(1) PRIDE
(2) BRIDE

(4) BLIND
(5) None of these

1. If in a certain languageREMOTEis coded as ROTEME, which word would be coded as PNIICC?

(1) NPIICC
(2) PICCIN
(3) PINCIC

(4) PICNIC
(5) PICINC

Directions (19-21): The number in each question below is to be codified in the following code.

Digit:      5     3    7     1      4     9     6      2      8

Letter:   C     J    O    X     N    Q     T     Z      F

1. 163542

(1) XTJCNZ
(2) TXJCNZ
(3) XTJCZN

(4) XTCJNZ
(5) None of these

1. 925873

(1) ZQCFOJ
(2) QZCFOJ
(3) QZCOFJ

(4) QZCFJO
(5) None of these

1. 741568

(1) ONCXTF
(2) NOXCFT
(3) ONCFCT

(4) ONXCTF
(5) None of these

1. In a certain codeORANGEis written as  ? ÷ @ • + *  and EAT is written as ‘ * @ \$’. How canROTATE be written in that code?

(1) ÷ ? \$ @ * \$
(2) ÷ ? \$ @ • *
(3) ÷ ? \$ @ \$ *

(4) ÷ ? \$ * • @
(5) None of these

1. In a certain code ‘PALM’ is written as ‘£ @ ? \$’ and ‘ARM’ is written as ‘ @ * \$ ’. How can ‘ALARM’ be written in that code?

(1) @ £ @ ? \$
(2) @ \$ ? £ @
(3) ? @ @ £ \$

(4) @ ? @ £ \$
(5) None of these

1. In a certain code ‘HEAT’ is written as ‘? * \$ @’ and ‘FINGER’ is written as ‘ £ • & * #’. How can ‘FATHER’ be written in that code?

(1)  \$ @ ? * #
(2) \$ @ ? # *
(3) @ ?  # \$ *

(4) \$ @ ? # *
(5) None of these

1. In a certain code ‘BODE’ is written as ‘@ \$ * ?’ and ‘EAT’ is written as ‘ ? • £ ’ How can ‘DEBATE’ be written in that code?

(1) ? * @ * £ •
(2) * ? @ • £ ?
(3) * ? @ * £ ?

(4) Cannot be determined
(5) None of these

1. (1)      2. (4)      3. (2)      4. (5)       5. (1)
2. (1)      7. (2)      8. (2)      9. (5)     10. (3)
3. (1)    12. (3)    13. (3)    14. (4)     15. (1)
4. (3)    17. (2)    18. (4)    19. (1)     20. (2)
5. (4)    22. (3)    23. (5)    24.  (1)    25. (2)

## Solutions

1. (1) In the code each of the two letters are reversed in arrangement.2. (4) In the code the arrangement of the letters in the word is wholly reversed.

3. (2) The letters preceding the first, third and fifth letters of the given word and those succeeding the second, fourth and last letters of the word in the alphabet form the code.

4. (5) The 1st and the last letters of the word are kept as such in the code and all other letters in between them are wholly reversed.

5. (1) In the code, the first letter is the second alphabet, the second letter is the third alphabet, the third letter is the fourth alphabet and so on after the corresponding letter in the word.

6. (1) The letters are coded accordingly T as 8, W as 6, E as 3, L as 2, and V as 0. So TWELVE is coded as 863203.

7. (2) The letters are coded accordingly P as 2, E as 4, A as 1, R as 5 and L as 3. So PEARL is coded as 24153.

8. (2) The letters are coded accordingly S as 2, E as 1, A as 4, R as 6, C as 7 and H as 3. i.e., 214673

9. (5) In the first and the second statements the common words are ‘are’ and ‘you’ and the common code words are nee and see. So nee and see means are and you. In the second statement the remaining code ble means where.

10. (3) In the first and the second statements, the common code word is nae and the common word is green. So nae means green. In the first and the third statements, the common code word is tom and the common word is is so tom means is. Therefore in the first statement pit means apple.

11. (1) In the first and the second statements the common code is tingo and the common word is flower. So tingo means flower. In the second and the third statements, the common code is mst and the common word is sweet. So mst means sweet. Therefore in the second statement, rho means fragranee.

12. (3) In the first and the third statements, the common code digits are 4 and 3 ; and the common words are mangoes and are. So 4 and 3 are the codes for mangoes and are. Thus in the third statement 9 means ripe.

13. (3) In the first and the second statements, the common code digit is 2 and the common word is carpet. So 2 means carpet. In the second and the third statements, the common code digit is 6 and the common word is one. So 6 means one. Therefore in the second statement, 5 means dust.

14. (4) In the first and the second statements, the common code digit is 4 and the common word is good. So 4 stands for good. In the second and the third statements, the common code digit is 7 and the common word is pictures. So 7 stands for pictures. Thus in the second statement 8 stands for see.

15. (1) In the first and the second statements, the common code digit is 5 and the common word is old, so 5 stands for old. In the first and third statements, the common code digit is 3 and the common word is books so 3 stands for books. Thus in the first statement, 2 stands for are.

16. (3) The first letter is moved one step backward and second is moved one step forward the third letter is moved one step backward, the fourth letter one step forward and so on. So the answer is (3)

17. (2) Each letter of the word is three steps ahead of the corresponding letter of the code.

18. (4) The groups of second and third letters and fourth and fifth letters in the word interchange places in the code.

19. (1) As given 1 is coded as X, 6 is coded as T, 3 is coded as J, 5 is coded as C, 4 is coded as N and 2 is coded as Z. So 163542 is coded as XTJCNZ.

20. (2) As given 9 is coded as Q, 2 as Z, 5 as C, 8 as F, 7 as O and 3 as J. So 925873 is coded as QZCFOJ.

21. (4) 7 is coded as O, 4 as N, 1 as X, 5 as C, 6 as T and 8 as F. So 741568 is coded as ONXCTF.

22. (3) O  R  A  N  G   E   E  A  T

?   ÷   @  •   +   *   *  @  \$
So we can codeROTATE as  ÷ ? \$ @ \$ *

23. (5)
P – £
A – @
L – ?
M – \$
R – *
M – \$
ALARM @ ? @ \$ £ *

24. (1)
H – ?
A – \$
T – @
F – 
I – £
N – •
G – &
E – *
R – #
FATHER  \$ @ ? * #

25. (2)
B – @
O – \$
D – *
E – ?
A – •
T – £
DEBATE = * ? @ • £ ?

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