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Computer Study Notes- Computer Languages

A language is the main medium of communicating between the Computer systems and the most common are the programming languages.There are basically two types of computer languages:
1) Low Level Language
2) High Level Language
1. Low Level Language:
Low level languages are computer instructions or machine code very easily understandable by a computing machine. It is mainly designed to operate and handle all the hardware and instructions set architecture of a Computer. The main function of the Low level language is to operate, manage and manipulate the hardware and system components.
Machine Language is one of the low-level programming languages which is the first generation language developed for communicating with a Computer. It is written in machine code which represents 0 and 1 binary digits inside the Computer string which makes it easy to understand and perform the operations.
 
Assembly Language is the second generation programming language that has almost similar structure and set of commands as Machine language. Instead of using numbers like in Machine languages here we use words or names in English forms and also symbols. For example microprocessor instruction codes. An assembly language is the most basic programming language available for any processor. With assembly language, a programmer works only with operations that are implemented directly on the physical CPU.
 
2. High Level Language:
A high-level language is a programming language such as C, FORTRAN, or Pascal that enables a programmer to write programs that are more or less independent of a particular type of computer. Each instruction in the high-level language is translated into many machine language instructions that the computer can understand.
 
There are further certain popular types of High Level Languages related to which questions were asked in computer section of recent examination:
Scripting Language: A scripting language is a programming language that employs a high-level construct to interpret and execute one command at a time.
 
AppleScript, a scripting language for the Macintosh allows the user to send commands to the operating system to, for example open applications, carry out complex data operations.
JavaScript, perhaps the most publicised and well-known scripting language was initially developed by Netscape as LiveScript to allow more functionality and enhancement to web page authoring that raw HTML could not accommodate.
 
Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language). This is a popular string processing language for writing small scripts for system administrators and web site maintainers. Much web development is now done using Perl.
Object-oriented Languages: Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of “objects”, which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. Significant object-oriented languages include Java, C++, C#, Python, PHP, Ruby, Perl, Object Pascal, Objective-C, Dart, Swift, Scala, Common Lisp, and Smalltalk.
Procedural Programming Language: The procedural programming language is used to execute a sequence of statements which lead to a result. Typically, this type of programming language uses multiple variables, heavy loops and other elements, which separates them from functional programming languages. The first major procedural programming languages first appeared circa 1960, including Fortran, ALGOL, COBOL and BASIC.

 

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