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Daily The Hindu Editorial With Vocabulary in Detail : HIV reality check

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HIV reality check

Two lives, of a donor and a recipient, are devastated by lapses in blood screening
A 23-year-old pregnant woman in Tamil Nadu tested positive for HIV after receiving a unit of blood at a government hospital blood bank, indicating(यह दर्शाता है) glaring(स्पष्ट ) lapses(खामियों/चूक) in screening procedures(प्रक्रिया). The blood was donated on November 30 and transfused to the pregnant woman on December 3. Testing all donated blood units for a number of transfusion-transmissible(छूत का) infections(संक्रमण), including HIV, is mandatory(अनिवार्य/आदेशात्मक) in India. The ELISA test used in all blood banks to screen for HIV has very high levels of sensitivity(संवेदनशीलता) to diagnose(पहचानना/ निदान करना) samples positive for the virus. It can be said with certainty(निश्चितता ) that the blood bank had failed to screen the blood for HIV. The question of testing the donated blood for HIV during(दौरान ) the window period (the time between potential(संभावित ) exposure(जोखिम/भंडाफोड़) to HIV and when the test reveals(पता चलता है/प्रत्यक्ष करना) for sure if the person has HIV) does not arise(उत्पन्न) as the donor’s HIV-positive status became known in 2016 when he donated blood at the same blood bank. Since 2004, prior(पहले) to donation, all blood banks are required (आवश्यकता)to obtain(प्राप्त करना) from donors written consent as to whether they wish to be informed about a positive test result. In case a donor tests positive for HIV, blood banks are required to refer the donors to designated(नामित) voluntary(स्वैच्छिक) counselling(परामर्श ) and testing centres (VCTCs) for disclosure(प्रकटीकरण/भेद खोलना ) and counselling. That the blood bank tried but failed to contact the donor in 2016 indicates that the donor had consented(सहमत होना) to be informed of a positive result. In a further tragic twist, he found out elsewhere(और कहीं) that he was HIV-positive, and dutifully contacted the hospital on December 10, but his blood had already been transfused by then. On Sunday he passed away after consuming(सेवन) poison.

Studies show that blood banks in India have a success rate of less than 50% in contacting donors who have tested positive for transfusion-transmissible infections. Under the 2004 National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) Action Plan, VCTCs are required to inform the blood bank of a donor’s HIV-positive status to stop the person from donating blood in the future only when the confirmatory(पुष्टिकारी/सबूत) test done at the VCTC too is positive. Since only half of the consented(सहमत होना)donors are contactable(संपर्क) and even fewer visit a VCTC, it is imperative(अनिवार्य/आदेशात्मक) that NACO finds a viable(व्यवहार्य) alternative without compromising the donor’s identity. The focus should also be on creating awareness(जागरूकता ) among donors to visit a VCTC to confirm their HIV status when alerted( सतर्क ) by blood banks. After all, timely confirmation(पुष्टि/प्रमाणीकरण) helps donors start on early treatment to keep the virus under check and take precautionary(रोकनेवाला/एहतियाती ) measures(उपाय) to reduce the risk of infecting their partners and others through sexual and other kinds of contact and through blood donation. After winning a protracted battle(लंबी लड़ाई) to keep away professional donors from donating blood by encouraging(उत्साहजनक/प्रोत्साहित ) voluntary(स्वैच्छिक ) donation, it is time blood banks and NACO worked to make safe blood availability a reality at all times.

Important Vocabulary

1. Glaring(स्पष्ट )
Synonyms: blatant, conspicuous, egregious, flagrant, , noticeable
Antonyms: concealed, hidden, inconspicuous, mild, obscure

2. Lapses(खामियों/चूक)
Synonyms: blunder, breach, crime, error, failing
Antonyms: accuracy, advantage, behavior, care, correction

3. Mandatory(अनिवार्य/आदेशात्मक)
Synonyms: binding, compulsory, de rigueur, essential, forced, imperative
Antonyms: free, inessential, nonessential, optional, secondary

4. Diagnose(पहचानना/ निदान करना)
Synonyms: analyze, determine, investigate, pinpoint, pronounce
Antonyms: miss, overlook, misdiagnose

5. Sensitivity(संवेदनशीलता)
Synonyms: awareness, feeling, nervousness, sense, subtlety
Antonyms: unconsciousness, apathy, impassivity, insensitivity, numbness

6. Exposure(जोखिम/भंडाफोड़)
Synonyms: disclosure, hazard, liability, publicity, risk
Antonyms: certainty, safety, secret, surety, concealment

7. Potential(संभावित )
Synonyms: hidden, likely, possible, probable, budding
Antonyms: unlikely, helpless, impossible, lacking, unpromising

8. Reveals(पता चलता है/प्रत्यक्ष करना)
Synonyms: acknowledge, admit, affirm, announce, concede
Antonyms: conceal, contradict, deny, disavow, dispute

9. Counselling(परामर्श )
Synonyms: admonish, advise, advocate, caution, charge
Antonyms: approve, conceal, discourage, dissuade, hide

10. Voluntary(स्वैच्छिक)
Synonyms: spontaneous, chosen, free, independent, volunteer
Antonyms: forced, involuntary, obligatory, unwilling

11. Designated(नामित)
Synonyms: label, nominate, baptize, call, christen

12. Consuming(सेवन)
Synonyms: engrossing, exhausting, immoderate, intense

13. Consented(सहमत होना)
Synonyms: acquiesce, comply, give in, subscribe, accede
Antonyms: disagree, condemn, demur, deny, disallow

14. Viable(व्यवहार्य)
Synonyms: applicable, feasible, possible, usable, workable
Antonyms: impossible, unfeasible, unlikely, unachievable, unpractical

15. Confirmation(पुष्टि/प्रमाणीकरण)
Synonyms: acceptance, admission, affirmation, approval, authorization
Antonyms: denial, disagreement, disapproval, opposition, refusal

16. Measures(उपाय)
Synonyms: part, quota, allotment, allowance, amount
Antonyms: extreme, unimportance, whole, ignorance, inaction

17. Precautionary(रोकनेवाला/एहतियाती )
Synonyms: alert, careful, discreet

18. Viable(व्यवहार्य)
Synonyms: applicable, feasible, possible, usable, workable
Antonyms: impossible, unfeasible, unlikely, unachievable, unpractical


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