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English Quiz On Cloze Test Day 8 Bag

English Quiz On Cloze Test Day 8 Bag


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In the passage given below there are 10 blanks, each followed by a word given in bold. Even blank has four alternative words given in options (A),(B),(C) and (D). You have to tell which word will best suit the respective blank. Mark (E) as your answer if the work given in bold after the blank is your answer i.e “No change required”.

INDIA’S experiment with affirmative action is the world’s oldest. Known locally as “reservation” policy it is an elaborate quota system for public jobs, places in publicly funded colleges—like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT)—and in most elected assemblies. These are (1)______ [copious] members of designated, disadvantaged groups.

There are two main intended (2) ______ [inheritors] . Arguably more neglected are the 100m adivasi, the 8% of India’s population counted as “Scheduled Tribes”. Many live in remote or forested corners. Probably more repressed for the centuries in which Hinduism’s noxious caste practice has prevailed however are the Dalits, formerly “untouchables”. Shunned by other Hindus as polluted for their labours, which included the clearing human and other waste, Dalits remain generally poor and discriminated against. To officials they are members of the “Scheduled Castes”.

India’s constitution of 1950 (3)_____ [diluted] the idea of discrimination as a means to help both “scheduled” groups, which was to build on limited quotas for jobs and education that were used in parts of British-run India from the 1920s. It proposed that the policy exist for a decade to see what progress would be made, but without (4)_____ [spelling] out how to measure it. The provision has been (5)______ [reborn] without fuss every decade since.

Rather than (6)______ [dispute] whether the practices help, politicians focus on extending them to new blocks of voters. By the late 1980s, after a commission of inquiry, lowly but non-“scheduled” Hindu castes, known collectively as the OBCs for “Other Backward Classes”, some 27% of the population, also got quotas. The result: in individual states such as Tamil Nadu or within the north-east, where backward populations predominate, over 80% of government jobs are set aside in quotas, despite a Supreme Court ruling that 50% ought to be the maximum.

Muslims want quotas too, but lack political (7)______ [will] to force them. Women have had a hand up in the political realm: a third of all seats in local elected bodies are reserved for them, after a 1993 constitutional amendment. A bill, supported by Sonia Gandhi, India’s most powerful politician, would see it applied it in the national parliament too.

The various quotas have partly achieved their most basic tasks. In public jobs members of backward groups claim more posts than of old. Dalits had just 1.6% of the most senior (“Group A”) civil servant positions in 1965, for example. That rose to 11.5% by 2011, not far off the 16% or so of the general population that Dalits represent. The share is higher for more junior posts.

Judging a broader impact is harder. Very few Indians have formal jobs, let alone government ones. “The policy only matters for perhaps 2% of the Indian work force”, points out Harsh Shrivastava of the World Development Forum, a think-tank in Delhi. Other than in tweaking quotas (to reflect the local size of a “scheduled” population) states have never experimented, nor competed, to find out whether their jobs policies have any wider, beneficial impact.

Worse, the policy has probably helped to make India’s bureaucracy increasingly rotten—and it was already one of the country’s greater burdens. An obsession with making the ranks of public servants (8)_______ [applicable] , not capable, makes it too hard to (9)____ [sack] dysfunctional or corrupt bureaucrats. Nor will this improve. In December 2012 parliament’s upper house passed a bill ordering that bureaucrats be promoted not on merit alone, but to lift the backward castes faster.

Private firms are not directly affected, but a few take voluntary measures. The biggest of all, the Tata conglomerate, which employs over 350,000, does in-house surveys to assess its Dalit and tribal work force. Tata gives incentives, setting lower requirements for exam marks, for Dalit and tribal job applicants. Most generally, however, formal jobs in tech and outsourcing firms, for example, are valued in part because they are (10) _________ [caste-deprived].

  1. A) stuffed with
    B) filled by
    C) abundant with
    D) augmented by
    E) No Change Required

Option B
Explanation: filled by

  1. A) possessors
    B) consignee
    C) proprietor
    D) beneficiaries
    E) No Change Required

Option D
Explanation: beneficiaries – a person who derives advantage from something

  1. A) enshrined
    B) celebrated
    C) digested
    D) broke
    E) No Change Required

 

Option A
Explanation: enshrined – inducted/introduced the idea of reservation

  1. A) picking
    B) procuring
    C) purpose
    D) touch
    E) No Change Required

Option E
Explanation: spelling- defining

  1. A) repaired
    B) added
    C) renewed
    D) hopeful
    E) No Change Required

Option C
Explanation: renewed

  1. A) debate
    B) peace
    C) agreement
    D) ruffle
    E) No Change Required

Option A
Explanation: debate

  1. A) license
    B) jurisdiction
    C) strike
    D) clout
    E) No Change Required

Option D
Explanation: clout- influence or power, especially in politics or business.

  1. A) exemplary
    B) representative
    C) imperfect
    D) steward
    E) No Change Required

Option B
Explanation: representative means that include every member of various caste by reservation hence making it representative.

  1. A) sink
    B) absorb
    C) doss
    D) develop
    E) No Change Required

Option E
Explanation: sack- remove/dismiss

  1. A) caste- lovers
    B) caste-blind
    C) caste- obsessed
    D) caste- finders
    E) No Change Required

Option B
Explanation: caste-blind means that they don’t believe in caste. The statement starts with however: however, formal jobs in tech ……. Means it is in contradiction with the previous line. i.e Tata group gives weightage to type of reservation. So this statement is its opposite. Hence caste-blind

Direction: In the passage given below there are 6 blanks, each followed by a word given in bold. Even blank has four alternative words given in options (A),(B),(C) and (D). You have to tell which word will best suit the respective blank. Mark (E) as your answer if the work given in bold after the blank is your answer i.e “No change required
Dr Rühe’s approach is to mimic a second living organism—this time an animal, the lizard. As lizards grow, their scales do not grow with them. Instead, old scales are shed and replaced from below by new ones. Dr Rühe (1)     (deduced) that it might likewise be possible to create a stack of lotus-like layers that would (2)      (flake off) when damaged, revealing a (3)      (pellucid) surface beneath.
Lotus-like man-made materials belong to a class known as nanograsses—so called because, under an electron microscope, they resemble lawns. Dr Rühe’s nanograsses have water-repellent “blades” attached to thin sheets of silicon. The task he set himself was to (4)      (organized) a stack of these that could tell when the one at the top was compromised so badly that it needed to be replaced, and then replace it automatically.
He conceived of doing this by gluing the layers of the stack together with a water-soluble material. He reasoned that, as the top layer got worn, and water began leaking through it, this glue would start to dissolve. A small amount of damage would do no harm. But enough would weaken the glue to the point where the uppermost nanograss lawn flaked off, and the next one down took over.
Testing this idea out using an (5)       (essential)) glue (a special water-soluble polymer), he found that it worked. When he scratched the top of such a stack with a scalpel and exposed it to water, it did, indeed, come loose and fall off as the water seeped into the underlying glue. Such an arrangement will not, of course, last for ever. Eventually, it will run out of layers. But if the idea can be applied to industrial practice, then long-lived, self-cleaning surfaces may at last become (6)       (routine).

1..
A) imagined
B) analyzed
C) generalized
D) theorized—-
E) No Correction Required

 

2..
A) flake out
B) flake away
C) flake down
D) flake up
E) No Correction Required—–

3..
A) recent
B) pristine—-
C) vacant
D) dewey
E) No Correction Required

4..
A) break
B) accomplish
C) conceive
D) create—–
E) No Correction Required

5..
A) steal
B) usurp
C) appropriate—
D) expropriate
E) No Correction Required

6..
A) normal
B) standard
C) method
D) habit
E) No Correction Required—–

 

Directions: In the passage given below there are 6 blanks, each followed by a word given in bold. Every blank has four alternative words given in options (A),(B),(C) and (D). You have to tell which word will best suit the respective blank. Mark (E) as your answer if the work given in bold after the blank is your answer i.e “No change required

Science fiction both predicts the future and (1)     (focus) the scientists and technologists who (2)         (work for develop) that future about. Mobile phones, to take a famous example, are essentially real-life versions of the hand-held communicators wielded by Captain Kirk and his crewmates in the original series of “Star Trek”. The clamshell models of the mid-2000s even take design cues directly from those fictional devices.

If companies ranging from giants like Microsoft and Google to newcomers like Magic Leap and Meta have their way, the next thing to leap from fiction to fact will be augmented reality (AR). AR is a sci-fi staple, from Arnold Schwarzenegger’s heads-up display in the “Terminator” films to the holographic computer screens that Tom Cruise slings around as a futuristic policeman in “Minority Report”.

AR is a close (3)     (cousin) to virtual reality (VR). There is, though, a crucial difference between them: the near-opposite meanings they (4)    (parable)  to the term “reality”. VR aims to drop users into a convincing, but artificial, world. AR, by contrast, supplements the real world by laying useful or entertaining computer-generated data over it. Such an overlay might be a map annotated with directions, or a reminder about a meeting, or even a virtual alien with a ray gun, ripe (5)     (bombast). Despite the hype and (6)      (important) given recently to VR, people tend to spend more time in real realities than computer-generated ones. AR thus has techies licking their lips in anticipation of a giant new market. Digi-Capital, a firm of merger and acquisitions advisors in California, reckons that of the $108 billion a year which it predicts will be spent by 2021 on VR and AR combined, AR will take three-quarters.

 

  1. A) move
    B) influence
    C) urge
    D) command
    E) No Correction required

 

Option B

 

  1. A) disposed to maintain
    B) adhere to carry
    C) work to bring
    D) work to brought
    E) No Correction required

 

Option C

 

  1. A) buddy
    B) relative
    C) niece
    D) bunny
    E) No Correction required

 

Option E

 

  1. A) arrogate
    B) absolve
    C) beg
    D) ascribe
    E) No Correction required

 

Option D

 

  1. A) for enhancing
    B) for boosting
    C) for carrying
    D) for aspiring
    E) No Correction required

 

Option B

 

  1. A) exploration
    B) experience
    C) encroachment
    D) prominence
    E) No Correction required

 

Option D

Directions: In the passage given below there are 6 blanks, each followed by a word given in bold. Every blank has four alternative words given in options (A),(B),(C) and (D). You have to tell which word will best suit the respective blank. Mark (E) as your answer if the work given in bold after the blank is your answer i.e “No change required

Like many science-fictional technologies, AR is in fact already here—just unevenly distributed. An early version was the heads-up displays that began (1)        (to be fitted) to jet fighters in the 1950s. These projected information such as compass headings, altitude and banking angles onto the cockpit canopy. Such displays occasionally (2)     (going high)in cars, too. But only now, as computers have (3)    (smaller) enough and become sufficiently powerful, has it become possible to give people a similar sort of experience as they go about their daily lives.

Last year, for instance, the world was briefly entranced by an AR smartphone game called Pokémon Go. Players had to (4)     (lost) the world collecting virtual monsters that were, thanks to their phones’ cameras, drawn over a phone’s-eye view of a building’s lobby or a stand of trees. Apps such as Snapchat, which features image filters that permit users to take pictures of themselves and others wearing computer-generated rabbit ears or elaborate virtual make-up, are another example.

There are less (5)     (hyper) uses, too. Google’s Translate app employs computer vision, automatic translation and a smartphone’s camera to show an image of the world that has text, such as items on menus and street signs, interpreted into any of several dozen languages.

Apps like Snapchat and Translate rely on machine-vision algorithms to work their magic. Snapchat is designed to detect faces. This works well enough, but means that the (6)         (bunny) ears can be applied only to heads. Translate, similarly, looks for text in the world upon which to work its magic. But smartphone-makers have bigger plans.

  1. A) being fitted
    B) done fitting
    C) having been fitted
    D) having fitted
    E) No Correction required

 

Option E

 

  1. A) move away
    B) turn up
    C) turn around
    D) moving high
    E) No Correction required

 

Option B

 

  1. A) reduce
    B) reduced
    C) needed
    D) shrunk
    E) No Correction required

 

Option D

 

  1. A) range
    B) wander
    C) rove
    D) divagate
    E) No Correction required

 

Option B

 

  1. A) trivial
    B) petty
    C) sedate
    D) frivolous
    E) No Correction required

 

Option D

 

  1. A) dish
    B) honey
    C) leon
    D) cony
    E) No Correction required

Option E

 

 

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