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Jumbled Sentences Tricks & Tips

Jumbled Sentences Tricks & Tips


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Paragraph jumble or jumbled paragraph is one of the most important question types in Bank entrance exams. Para jumbles test your understanding of thought flow. In simple words they test are you able to identify a coherently formed paragraphs.

Paragraph jumbles come in different flavors.
  • 5 sentence
  • 6 sentence
Since there are 5 questions linked to a single paragraph jumble, solving it is important. These questions can be solved by following specific strategies. So let us understand the strategies and solve some questions.

How We Should Not Solve a Paragraph Jumble

Since there is time constraint we should NEVER read the sentences again and again without identifying the connections between the sentences. Test setters generally pickup sentences from newspaper articles, books or magazines and hence each sentence has a link to another. Hence it is absolutely necessary to identify the links between sentences.

How We Should we solve the Paragraph jumble

The proven technique or strategy to solve is to identify the links between the sentences and arrive at a coherent paragraphs. To identify the links we need to identify the keywords. One effective way is to identify MANDATORY PAIRS.
So let us understand what all mandatory pairs are there and how we can identify them.

1. Pronoun:

Generally the paragraph jumble will mention a noun first and then use pronouns to point at it. So we need to simply identify those sentence pair that does that

 

For instance:

 

  • He was carrying his jacket and walked with his head thrown back.
  • As Anette neared the lamp she saw a figure walking slowly.
  • For a while Michael walked on and she followed twenty paces behind.
  • With a mixture of terror and triumph of recognition she slackened her pace.
Since B mentions that Anette saw a figure. So that makes B the first statement. Now read A. It says that HE was carrying his jacket. So that makes BA a mandatory pair. Next is D as she has recognized the figure. And in C the name of the figure is mentioned.

2. Chronology/ Time reference

Many a times there is a logical/ time bound event chain present in the paragraph jumble. It could be a series of events, steps etc. We can identify the beginning /start of the event and then find the next event and so on.
For instance: 
  • Four days later, Oracle announced its own bid for PeopleSoft, and invited the firm’s board to a discussion.
  • Furious that his own plans had been endangered, PeopleSoft’s boss, Craig Conway, called Oracle’s offer “diabolical”, and its boss, Larry Ellison, a “sociopath”.
  • In early June, PeopleSoft said that it would buy J.D. Edwards, a smaller rival.
  • Moreover, said Mr. Conway, “he could imagine no price nor combination of price and other conditions to recommend accepting the offer.”
  • On June 12th, PeopleSoft turned Oracle down.
First sentence is C as it shows the first event in EARLY JUNE, when PeopleSoft announced its plan. Next sentence is A as FOUR DAYS LATER, ORACLE announced ITS OWN plan. B shows that the plan made PeopleSoft boss unhappy. He said something and in next sentence D added by saying MOREOVER. Then on 12th JUNE PeopleSoft turned down the offer.
Another example
  • Then two astronomers—the German, Johannes Kepler, and the Italian, Galileo Galilei—started publicly to support the Copernican theory, despite the fact that the orbits it predicted did not quite match the ones observed.
  • His idea was that the sun was stationary at the centre and that the earth and the planets move in circular orbits around the sun.
  • A simple model was proposed in 1514 by a Polish priest, Nicholas Copernicus.
  • Nearly a century passed before this idea was taken seriously.
C is the obvious start as it introduces the idea that in 1514, a simple model was suggested. B then explains the idea proposed by Nicholas Copernicus. Then in D “nearly a century passed” indicates the time link. A uses “then” and thus follows D.

English Quiz : Spotting Error Questions with Detail Explanation

3. Parts of Speech

Parts of speech such as conjunctions, adjectives and pronouns can also be used to identify the links between sentences.
 
For instance 
To avoid this, the QWERTY layout put the keys most likely to be hit in rapid succession on opposite sides. This made the keyboard slow, the story goes, but that was the idea.
A different layout, which had been patented by August Dvorak in 1936, was shown to be much faster.
The QWERTY design (patented by Christopher Sholes in 1868 and sold to Remington in 1873) aimed to solve a mechanical problem of early typewriters.
Yet the Dvorak layout has never been widely adopted, even though (with electric typewriters and then PCs) the anti-jamming rationale for QWERTY has been defunct for years.
When certain combinations of keys were struck quickly, the type bars often jammed.
C mentions a problem that the qwerty keyboard aimed to solve. E explains the problem in details. A mentions that to avoid THIS [i.e. Type bars often jammed]. Qwerty provided a SLOW but sure way. B tells that a faster [in comparison to QWERTY] keyboard was built. D says that YET [despite the faster keyboard designed by Dvorak] the DVORAK keyboard has not been adopted widely.

4. Obvious Openers

Sometimes you may find that a sentence has no previous link and introduces the idea of the paragraph jumble. Such sentence can introduce a concept, be a definition, describe an event, state an observation. In short, it will be the Obvious opener of the paragraph.
A good way to find such sentence would be to look at the first letter of the option and read only that sentence to gauge whether the sentence is an obvious opener or not.
 
For instance 
Since then, intelligence tests have been mostly used to separate dull children in school from average or bright children,
  • so that special education can be provided to the dull.
  • In other words, intelligence tests give us a norm for each age.
  • Intelligence is expressed as intelligence quotient, and tests are developed to indicate what an average child of a certain age can do: what a 5-year-old can answer, but a 4-year-old cannot, for instance.
  • Binet developed the first set of such tests in the early 1900s to find out which children in school needed special attention.
  • Intelligence can be measured by tests.
Now according to the options, we have 3 sentences that can be obvious opener. As you can see D says SUCH tests. That means either it should define what tests or a statement prior to it should define the tests as we use SUCH when we have mentioned before hand something about the word. Since D does not mention that, some other statement should and hence D cannot be obvious openers. C looks attractive as an obvious opener as it says the intelligence is expressed as intelligence quotient and tests are developed. Now for one moment let us consider this option. Then what about E, which also introduces the idea that intelligence can be measured by tests. Since it does not have a word such as THUS, HENCE it cannot be conclusion it can be only at the start of the paragraph or not in the paragraph at all. That means E is START of the idea. Hence E is the obvious opener.

5. Using conjunctions to find links

There are certain words – firstly, secondly, then, however, consequently, on the other hand, etc. – which show how the idea given in the paragraph jumble flows from start to finish. We can identify these words and then look for the sentence that comes before or after these sentences.
Some commonly used linking words we can use are :
Cause and Effect: Words or phrases explicitly indicating that one thing causes another or logically determines another.
For example: accordingly, in order to, because, so…that, consequently, therefore, given, thus, hence, when…then, if…then
Continuing Idea Words: These words or phrases support a given sentence, idea or example. Sentences containing these words will generally not be the opening sentence. These sentences will follow immediately the sentence supported.
For example: furthermore, additionally, also, and, indeed, besides, as well, too, likewise, moreover
Contrast words: We can also look for words that indicate a contrast between two ideas or statement,
For example: Nevertheless, nonetheless, on the contrary, notwithstanding, even though, instead of, despite, in spite of, while, in contrast, although, however
For Instance 
  • When it appeared last April at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, scientists thought it had spoiled their experiment.
  • Within an hour of its formation, it had commandeered the organic material in a thimble-size test tube and started to make copies of itself.
  • Yet its behavior was astonishingly lifelike.
  • Then the copies made copies.
  • But this snippet of synthetic RNA — one of the master molecules in the nuclei of all cells — proved unusually talented.
  • The molecule was not alive, at least not in any conventional sense.
Explanation: A cannot be the start point as it uses “it”. Since “it” is a pronoun, it should point at something. Since A does not tell what “it” is, A should come after a sentence that defines what “it” refers to. Same is the case with B. C, D and E use a contrasting word and thus have to be placed after another sentence. That leaves F as the start. F states that the molecule was not alive. C then continues it by contrasting it by stating that “yet its behavior was lifelike”. Now it is clear that we are talking about molecule and thus A will come after A. A states that scientists thought that the molecule had spoiled their experiment. E will come after it as it states “but” and states that the molecule was talented. B comes after E by describing the talent i.e. making its copies. In D it is written that “then”, which means after the action described in E, copies made copies.

Be The Master Of Paragraph Jumbles

The most effective way to solve paragraph jumbles is to be mechanical in finding links or mandatory pairs. You will find that finding links will give you greater accuracy than any other strategy. And remember PRACTICE at least 100 questions to ace paragraph jumbles.
  • Follow the general to specific rule, this means that you should move from an introductory sentence to one that gives the details. Try to find sentence which introduces a topic or person or idea. This will be the opening sentence.
  • You could also try to find the closing sentence; this sentence will generally be a concluding statement. It will not introduce a new idea but conclude what has already been mentioned.
  • The next trick which is really helpful in solving Para jumbles is to make mandatory pairs.Mandatory pairs are sentences which will necessarily come together. The key to solving Para-jumble questions is identification of these connected pairs of statements.
For mandatory pair identification, be on the lookout for:
1. Nouns and pronouns reference: Nouns or subjects mentioned in a statement can be replaced by a pronoun in the next statement. Be always on the lookout for such pairs.
2. Subject matching: two statements based on the subject form a pair
3. Time sequences: in general, if a given set of statements contains reference to time based events, make sure maintain a particular order that is past-present-future or vice-versa.
  • Transition words such as: as also, as well as, besides, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly, consequently, hence, for one thing, above all, aside from, besides, in other words, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, rather, meanwhile, next, then, soon, in conclusion, after all, all in all, to sum up.

 

Some More Tricks & Tips


Why are PJ(Para Jumbled) questions important?

Para-jumbles are significant because they have been regularly appearing in the CAT and other MBA entrance tests. There is a good chance of three para-jumble questions appearing in the 20 questions of the Verbal Ability (VA) section. Which means that if you cracked the para-jumbles correctly — 20% of your VA score stands secured (assuming that you will attempt 15-odd questions in the this section).

Secondly and more importantly — PJs are one of those questions of the CAT in which you can improve your skills dramatically within a short span of time. Engineers have a special fondness for PJs as they appeal to the need for symmetry in their souls and let’s face it — it is probably one of the few areas of CAT VA where the scope of ambiguity is limited!

Types of PJ questions

Para-jumbles broadly fall in three categories. In each category, the jumbled sentences are coded with an alphabet (usually A, B, C and D).

1. 4/5 sentences are given in a random order and you have to unjumble all of them. Toughest of the lot!

2. The opening sentence + 4/5 sentences are given and you have to rearrange the group of 4/5 sentences, having been given prior knowledge of the thought that starts off the flow of the discussion.

3. 4/5 sentences + the closing sentence is given and you need to correctly sequence 4/5 sentences so that they flow into the last sentence.

4. Opening sentence + 4/5 Sentences + Closing Sentence are given. Easiest of the lot. You know where the story starts and where it ends. You only have to figure out the screenplay in between!

The smartest approach

a) The best approach to solving PJ questions is the ‘free fall’ one. That is, develop a high reading speed and scan all 4-5 sentences. Try to get a feel of what the passage is about.

b) At this point you need to decide whether this particular paragraph is one which you are comfortable with or not.

c) If you decide to go ahead, then scan the answer options. Are they of any help?

If , for example the options are,

a) BDAC b) BCAD c) CABD d) CBDA

Then you know for sure that this paragraph has to start either with B or C. A quick look at B and C will tell you which one looks like a better opening sentence and already your choices will be halved.

Similarly, with options,

a) BDCA b) CDBA c) DCAB d) ACDB

then we know that it has to end with either B or A. So browse sentences A and B and see if any one of them look like a concluding sentence.

There might be other indicators to keep an eye out for. For example if three of the five options start with A and the other two with C/B/D there is a good probability that A is the starting sentence.

If, say, a link CB occurs in more than 2 options then it is something worth paying attention to.

PJ strategies to save time and increase accuracy

Strategy 1: Once upon a time long ago… / …and they lived happily after: Identify the opening/closing sentence using what we discussed above. Either the tone of the paragraph or the option elimination method.

Strategy 2: Where’s the interlock dude? Identify links between two sentences and try to see if that link exists in multiple answer options (a sure way to know that you are on the right track). A combination of 1 and 2 will take you home most of the time.

Place your magnifying glass on the following,

Strategy 2a: Make it ‘personal’. Look out for personal pronouns (he, she, it, him, her, you, they). Personal pronouns always refer to a person, place or thing. Therefore, if a sentence has a personal pronoun without mentioning the person, place or object it is referring to, mark it in your head and scan the paragraph for the original person, place or object that it refers to.

For example if you go back to the opening jumbled paragraph of this article, the third sentence starts with ‘it’. We now need to figure out what ‘it’ refers to and the sentence containing the original ‘it’ will come before this sentence.

Strategy 2b: Look for ‘Poriborton’ (Change, in Mamata Banerjee’s tongue). Certain words called ‘transition words’ help the author to shift from one thought flow to another. In other words, they usher in change. Some transition words that appear regularly are — hence, besides, simultaneously, in conclusion, etc. While you practice PJs whenever you come across a transition word — note it down. Make a list!

Strategy 2c: Demonstrate! Look for demonstrative pronouns — this, that, these, those, etc. Again, if you look at our opening paragraph, the first line starts with ‘for this’ — now we know that we need to figure out what ‘this’ refers to and the sentence containing the original ‘this’ will come before this sentence.

Strategy 3: Main samay hoon! Sometimes the events mentioned in the paragraph can be arranged in a chronological order making it easy for you to identify the sequence. Example,

A: Alexander Bain, Scottish clockmaker, patented the electric clock.

B: The next development in accuracy occurred after 1656 with the invention of the pendulum clock.

C: Clocks have played an important role in man’s history.

D: Spring-driven clocks appeared during the 15th century, although they are often erroneously credited to Nuremberg watchmaker Peter Henlen around 1511.

It is quite obvious by studying the chronology what the sequence should be.

Strategy 4: The Chota Rajan Approach. Sometimes you will find that for some terms in the paragraph both the full form and the abbreviation have been used. For Example IMF — International Monetary Fund, Charles Dickens — Dickens, Dr Manmohan Singh — Dr Singh. In these cases where both the full form as well as the abbreviation is present in different sentences, then the sentence containing the full form will obviously come before the sentence containing the abbreviation.

Strategy 5: What an Idea Sirji! If there are two sentences, one containing an idea and another giving examples of the same idea then the sentence containing the idea should come before the sentence containing the examples. But they need not necessarily be exactly side by side. Example,

A: Russia possesses the largest stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction in the world.

B: 489 missiles carrying up to 1,788 warheads and 12 submarines carrying up to 609 warheads form a looming threat.

A will come before B in this case, even though there might be sentences in between.

Strategy 6: An article of faith. It is highly unlikely that the definite article ‘the’ will be part of an opening sentence. If ‘a/an’ and ‘the’ both are used for the same noun then the sentence containing ‘the’ will come after the sentence containing a/an.

Tips for beginners

Focus on improving your reading skills. Also try to improve your cognitive ability. For example — Go to a random website article. Go immediately to the second paragraph and after reading it try to guess what the author could have possibly said in the previous paragraph and the next paragraph. This will help you with a couple of other types of questions as well which we shall discuss in later articles.

Tips for the 99 percentilers

Whenever you solve para-jumbles the accuracy and speed is a function of how quickly you can become comfortable with the topic. So from today for every PJ you solve, plug a sentence from the PJ into Google which will throw up the source of that PJ or similar articles. Read up that article fully. This will broaden the base of your reading.

To-do practice activity for all of you

Team up with another friend. Both of you select passages from newspaper editorials, magazines, etc. Paste them to Microsoft Word. Break them up into sentences. Jumble up the sentences. Exchange and solve.

 

Handy Tips for Solving Para jumbles


Paragraph jumbles, or as they are fondly called, para jumbles, are sets of connected statements in some random order, which when unjumbled, create a meaningful paragraph. There aren’t any straight-forward approaches to solving Para Jumbles. With as many approaches as you can possibly think of, each Para jumble has a unique solution.

There are many myths on Para Jumbles that make them mind-boggling!

Myth1: Para jumbles are the most difficult questions in the English section.

The truth: They really aren’t! We hope these tips will help you believe it.

Myth2: “Oh, options are the only saving grace!”

The truth: Para Jumbles can very well be solved without options.

Myth3: “You don’t need to be good in vocabulary for Para Jumbles.”

The truth: Sorry, vocabulary can actually help go a long way in solving the Para Jumble.

Each Para Jumble can make use of one or more of these tips for solving. Do note that these tips should be applied depending on the unique Para Jumble question posed to you. Some problems can be solved by taking articles as a cue, while some may need pronouns as a guide.

Here are a few tips to successfully solve Para Jumbles:

  1. Look for the sentence that clearly introduces a person, place, committee, or concept in the Para Jumble. That will most likely be the opening sentence.

Here is an example:

  1. He was looking forward to opening up the presents in the solitude of his room.
  2. Sanjay’s birthday was celebrated with a big bash.
  3. But the guests insisted he open them up right there.
  4. Several people arrived at his home bearing gifts, both big and small.

Introductory Line: Clearly the first line must be statement B. This is because the whole passage talks about gifts and guests and what happens at birthdays. So the first sentence must necessarily introduce the person whose birthday it is. He is referred to by his name in this sentence whereas the remaining sentences refer to him as ‘he’. This is another indication that sentence B is the opening line.

  1. Always spot the central theme of each Para Jumble. The flow of the story/dialog goes a long way in piecing together the paragraph in the correct order.
  1. Follow the activities:

At times, the Para Jumble will have sentences talking about activities. In such cases by just analyzing which activity happens when, the question can be solved very easily. Take this case for example:

  1. He accumulates some capital and goes into a business venture with his sons.
  2. In order to increase his salary he works through the night.
  3. They open a shop to create men’s garments.
  4. Later he takes the garments and sells it on New York streets.
  5. He takes garments from the sweatshop to finish at home with the help of his wife and older children at night.
  6. A Russian tailor artisan comes to America, takes to the needle trade, works in sweatshop for small salary.

Central theme: The struggle of a tailor and his steps to success

Activity Tracking:                                                                                                        

Finding the opening sentence here is cakewalk. Sentence F clearly specifies the person and his work, so it’s the opening statement.

Now a sequence unfolds.

A man works in a shop to earn his daily bread. He then goes home and works again with his family’s help. He then starts working through the night to earn more. Only after having worked day and night does his work get ready for sale.

The sequence just shown should give you hints for part of the answer. After F, the order is E-B-D.

Sentence C speaks of a shop that the man opens. So he has to arrange for the capital first. Hence A will come before C.

Therefore, the logical order is F-E-B-D-A-C.

If the sentences are too lengthy, do not spend a lot of time reading every detail of it. Be vigilant and quick in spotting ‘special words’ like connectives, articles, pronouns and adjectives.

  1. Connectives:

There will be sentences having ‘connectives’ like although, though, if, until, since, but, after, alternatively, besides, then, yet, because, consequently, notwithstanding, and, when, meanwhile, so, however, for, whoever, whatever, whenever, nevertheless, therefore, furthermore, whereas, moreover etc.

These sentences are almost never the opening ones. They always refer to people or events mentioned in previous sentences.

For example:

  1. Friendly wash by many other smaller brands have challenged the giants by offering prices which attracted the value-conscious Indian consumer.
  2. In fact unbranded players are offering packs which are twice the size of a branded product with similar or better quality at cheaper prices.

Central theme: The tough competition given to FMCG companies by smaller brands

Here the connective ‘in fact’ clearly indicates that sentence B should follow A.

Hence the correct order is A-B.

  1. Articles:

Even articles can help to some extent in these questions. ‘The’ is a definite article, whereas ‘a’ and ‘an’ are indefinite articles. ‘The’ is used to denote something or someone specific or when the person or thing for which the article has been used has already been introduced. ‘A’ or ‘an’ are used while introducing something for the first time and also for stating general facts. Like, ‘A hit-and-run case usually has a ten year jail term as punishment in India.’

For example:

  1. A boy and his friend played all day in the garden near our house.
  2. The next day, I didn’t see the boy in the garden, though his friend was there.

Central theme: Boy playing in the garden

In the second sentence, ‘the’ has been used along with ‘boy’ because he has already been introduced to the reader in another sentence. Also here we are talking specifically about ‘that’ boy. Hence, the correct order is A-B.

  1. Pronouns:

Pronouns like he, she, they, it, them, their, him, her etc. are used when the person being talked about has already been introduced. Some Para Jumbles can be tackled by taking pronouns as a guide.

For example:

  1. They gathered together the death certificates from residents of the town, going back to as many years as they could.
  2. Wolf decided to investigate.
  3. He enlisted the support of his students and colleagues from Oklahoma.

Central theme: An act of investigation

Since the sentence B clearly states the person, Wolf, it is undoubtedly the opening sentence.

Next comes sentence C where pronoun ‘he’ refers to Wolf.

It would make no sense if sentence C came before B. Only after Wolf has been introduced, should we use ‘he’ to refer to Wolf.

After Wolf has enlisted the support of his friends, we can refer to them as ‘they’. So sentence A is the final one in the passage. Clearly sentence A cannot be used before this because the only one introduced in the first sentence is Wolf and the group of people has only been introduced in the second sentence. So we can refer to the group as ‘they’ only after this second introduction.

The complete answer is thus B-C-A.

However, in case of pronouns in the first person like ‘I’, taking cues from them can get baffling. Such Para Jumbles have to be solved using other approaches.

For example:

  1. A. I am a student preparing for the SBI PO
  2. B. I request you to provide some helpful tips to solve the logical reasoning questions.

Central theme: An SBI PO aspirant and his request

Here, pronouns can be of no help. It is best to think of it this way: only after introducing yourself can you talk about your need for some helpful tips.

Hence, the order is A-B.

  1. Adjectives:

Adjectives like ‘simpler’, ‘better’, ‘cleverer’ etc are comparative. Hence they always hold a relation to other things. Such adjectives can also be of good help in solving Para Jumbles.

For example:

  1. The solution that you had put up was good.
  2. Riya had posted her solution that I found to be better.

Central theme: Solutions posted by two people

Here, of course, sentence B has to come after A due to the comparative adjective ‘better’.

Below are a few confusing Para Jumbles specially crafted keeping in mind the tips discussed.

Para Jumble 1:

  1. Post offices and Public sector banks could supplement micro-credit institutions in this regard.
  2. They are trusted institutions, and have already built up credit and savings channels for the poor.
  3. In a recent paper, Wouter Van Ginneken of the International Labor Organization has argued that micro-finance institutions could play an important role in providing social security.
  4. To overcome this weakness, Ginneken suggests that micro-credit organizations should outsource the insurance part of their business.
  5. But one problem is that most micro-credit institutions are small and lack expertise in the insurance business.

Central theme: Micro-finance institutions, how they benefit people, problems faced by them and solution to their problems.

Sentence C should be the opening sentence because it clearly mentions the name of the person, Wouter Van Ginneken and his argument.

It is essential to note that the Para Jumble is about the institutions, not Ginneken.

Hence sentence B with pronoun ‘they’ referring to the institutions should come after C. They go on to give more information about micro-finance institutions.

Sentences A and D talk about some solutions.

So sentence E which poses the problem should come before them.
Between A and D, statement D will clearly come first, because it is a suggestion for solving the problem and the method of solving it is in sentence A.

Therefore the order is C-B-E-D-A.

Para Jumble 2:

  1. The former Act imposed severe restrictions on the freedom of the press and the latter forbade the possession of arms by Indians.
  2. Many measures of the government provoked widespread agitation.
  3. The British government consistently followed a policy of repression after 1857.
  4. Two of these were the Vernacular Press Act of 1878 and the Arms Act of 1897.

Central theme: The repressive policy of the British government.

Sentence C specifies the people (i.e. the British government) and their policy most clearly.

Hence it is the opening one.

Sentence B should follow C as it talks about the measures adopted in the policy.

Sentence D should follow B as ‘these’ in D refers to the measures taken by the government which are Draconian Acts.

Sentence A again talks about the Acts and uses the words ‘former’ and ‘latter’. These words refer to the Acts mentioned in D.

Therefore, logically, A will come after D.

The logical arrangement of the above Para Jumble is C-B-D-A.

Para Jumble 3:

  1. Here I would like to echo the words of former President of India, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, “A nation’s progress depends about how its people think.”
  2. We have to act with conviction to realize our dream.
  3. We Indians have to think as a nation and dream to transform our country into a super power.
  4. It is very unfortunate that economically resurgent India still remains home to the world’s largest population of poor, hungry and illiterate people.
  5. Besides these, rapidly increasing population, rampant corruption, exploitation of women, child labour, communalism are some of the issues which need to be worked upon.
  6. Tragically, hunger remains India’s biggest lingering problem with an estimated 7000 Indians dying of hunger every single day.
  7. Along with chronic hunger, deep poverty and high illiteracy also continue to blight the lives of millions of our people.

Central theme: Problems faced by Indians

Locating the opening sentence here is a bit tricky. But on close inspection of some special words, sentence D seems most apt for the opening sentence. That is because of the following:

Sentence A has ‘here’ implying ‘in this situation’.

Sentences B and C can’t be the opening sentence as we don’t give solutions before discussing problems.

Sentence E has the connective ‘besides these’.

Sentences F and G give detailed views on hunger and illiteracy as problems in India.

Sentence D hence should be the opening sentence.

Notice how the process of elimination has been used to spot the opening sentence.

Sentences F and G should follow next. G after F as it has the connective ‘along with chronic hunger’.

Sentence E again with a connective ‘besides these’ implying besides hunger, poverty and illiteracy should come after G.

Sentence A with ‘here’ meaning ‘in this situation of problems…’ should follow E. Also Dr. Kalam’s quote tells that India’s progress depends on how its people think.

Therefore, Sentence C gives the response to A that we have to think as a nation.

Sentence B, the only one left, is the concluding one.

Therefore, the correct order is D-F-G-E-A-C-B

Up next is a Para Jumble that was asked in SBI PO 2014. Try applying the tips discussed above to solve it!

Para Jumble 4 (SBI PO 2014):

  1. It is obvious from the above that the Commission has accorded the highest priority to securing speedy justice to women.
  2. These members continue to pursue their mandated activities, namely review of legislation, intervention in specific individual complaints of atrocities and denial of rights.
  3. The functions assigned to the Commission, as per the Act, are wide and varied covering almost all facts of issues relating to safeguarding women’s rights and promotion.
  4. The National Commission for Women was set up on 31st January, 1992 in pursuance of the National Commission for Women Act 1990.
  5. Towards the end of speedy justice to women, the Commission is organizing Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats offering counseling in family disputes and conducting training programmes for creating legal awareness among women.
  6. They also suggest remedial action to safeguard the interest of women to the appropriate authorities.
  7. To carry out these functions the Commission has a Chairman, five members and a Member Secretary, all nominated by the Central Government.

Central theme: The Commission, its functions, members and their procedures for securing speedy justice to women.

Sentence D is undoubtedly the opening sentence here as it clearly mentions the name of the Commission being talked about.

Sentence C will come next because it talks about the functions performed by the Commission, according to the Women Act 1990.

Now this question can get a little tricky. One might feel that as C talks about the functions, sentence F, again talking about functions should follow C. But that’s where the catch of the question is!

Going by the tips discussed until now, we have to look for ‘special words’. Sentence G has the words ‘these functions’ and a phrase ‘to carry out’. Clearly, they are linked to sentence C. hence, G will come after C.

Now since G has introduced us to the members, naturally B will come next as it has the word ‘these’ to refer to members.

The sentences left are A, E and F. Sentence F seems most apt to follow due to the pronoun ‘they’ referring again to the members.

Well now it’s pretty obvious that E will follow F; A being the concluding sentence. This is because sentence E introduces the issue of speedy justice for women. And sentence A talks about how it is obvious ‘from the above’ that speedy justice for women is a priority for the commission.

So the complete order is D-C-G-B-F-E-A

 

What are Para jumbles?


Para jumbles are jumbled paragraphs. Basically, you are given a paragraph – but the sentences are not in the right order. It’s up to you to untie this knot and rearrange the sentences so that they logically make sense.

The approaches for Jumbled Paragraph: –

(1). Establish Link Between Two Sentences and Then Examine the Options Suppose you establish the link ‘BA’. The given options are:

(a) DABC

(b) ACDB

(c) CBAD

(d) DBAC.

Now you are left with option (c) and (d) to examine.

(2). Transition Words

Transition words make the shift from one idea to another very smooth. They organize and connect the sentences logically.

List of transition words-  again, as well as, besides,

furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly, consequently, hence, otherwise, subsequently, therefore, thus, as a rule, generally, for instance, for example, for one thing, above all, aside from, barring, besides, in other words, in short, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, first of all, to begin with, at the same time, for now, for the time being, in time, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind, after all,

(3). Personal Pronouns

Personal pronouns are (he, she, it, him, her, they, you, your etc.)

Remember that personal pronouns always refer to a person, place or thing etc.

Therefore, if a sentence contains a personal pronoun without mentioning the person, place or object it is referring to, the person, place or object must have come in the previous sentence.

(4). Demonstrative Pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns are “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.” “This” and “that” are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and “these” and “those” are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases.

Whenever a sentence contains a demonstrative pronoun without mentioning the noun or the noun phrase, it means that the previous sentence must be mentioning that noun or noun phrase.

Finding that noun or noun phrase helps us connect two sentences.

(5). Acronym Approach

Full form vs. short form:

In PJ we encounter full and short names sometimes acronyms of some term or institution.

Example-World Trade Organization – WTO

Dr. Manmohan Singh – Dr. Singh

Karl Marx – Marx

President George W. Bush – President bush or the president

The rule is that if both full form, as well as short form, is present in different sentences, then the sentence containing full form will come before the sentence containing the short form.

(6). Articles Approach

Articles can be divided into two categories –

  1. Definite (the) and
  2. Indefinite (a and an).

When the author uses ‘a / an’ – he wants to make a general statement – wants to introduce the noun followed by a/an for the first time but when he uses ‘the’ he wants to refer back to some previously discussed noun. It means having ‘the’ is very unlikely in the opening sentence.

If ‘a/an’ and ‘the’ both are used for the same noun, then the sentence containing ‘the’ will come after the sentence containing a/an.

(7) Signal/Indicating Word List

Writers use transitions to link their ideas logically.

These transitions or signal words are clues that can help you figure out what the sentence actually means and its sequence.

(a) Cause and Effect Signals

Look for words or phrases explicitly indicating that one thing causes another or logically determines another.

Accordingly, in order to, because, so…that, consequently, therefore, given, thus

hence. when…then, if…then

(b) Support Signal Words

Look for the words or phrases supporting a given sentence.

These words containing sentences will not be the opening sentence. These sentences will follow immediately the sentence supported.

Furthermore, Additionally, Also, And, Too, as well, besides, indeed, likewise, moreover

(c) Contrast Signals

Look for function words or phrases (conjunctions, sentence adverbs, etc.) that explicitly indicate a contrast between one idea and another.

Albeit, Nevertheless, Although, Nonetheless, But, Notwithstanding, Despite, on the contrary

 

even though, on the other hand, however, rather than, In contrast, Still, In spite of, While, Instead of, yet

Tips and Tricks for Para jumbled Sentences


 

What are Parajumbled Sentences ?

Parajumbles are jumbled sentences of some paragraph. Basically, you are given a paragraph – but the sentences are not in the right order. It’s up to you to understand the crux and rearrange the sentences so that they logically make sense. Usually, instructions for this type of questions will read “Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph”. Given below would be 5 or 6 perplexing sentences which you would need to sort and arrange. Sounds difficult ? It is not.

 

With the help of the following hints and rules, you people can easily have a command over the apparently time consuming portion of the English Section.

  • Change the direction WORDS Approach :
    These words organize and connect the sentences logically.If found in a sentence, can often give you a clue about the sentence that will come before/after that particular sentence. Given below are some commonly used these kind of words:
    also, again, as well as, besides, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly, consequently, hence, otherwise, subsequently, therefore, thus, as a rule, generally, for instance, for example, for one thing, above all, aside from, barring, besides, in other words, in short, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, first of all, to begin with, at the same time, for now, for the time being, in time, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind, after all, all in all to sum-up.

 

  • PERSONAL PRONOUNS Approach
    Personal pronouns are he, she, it, him, her, they, you, your etc. Remember that personal pronouns always refer to a person, place or thing etc. Therefore, if a sentence contains a personal pronoun without mentioning the person, place or object it is referring to, the person, place or object must have come in the previous sentence. Often, this is a good lead to identify a link.

 

  • DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
    The demonstrative pronouns are “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.” “This” and “that” are used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases and “these” and “those” are used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases. Whenever a sentence contains a demonstrative pronoun without mentioning the noun or the noun phrase, it means that the previous sentence must be mentioning that noun or noun phrase. Finding that noun or noun phrase helps us connect two sentences.

 

  • COMBINING IT ALL WITH LOGIC Approach
    Sometimes using logic to decide the order of sentences can yield high dividends. In the previous example, we had used logic to determine that sentence A would come before any other sentence referring Hofman. Keep your eyes open for clues such as these.

 

  • Abbreviations Approach
    Full form vs. short form: Here,we encounter full and short names, sometimes abbreviations of some term or institution.
    Ex-World Trade Organization – WTO
    Dr. Manmohan Singh – Dr. Singh
    Karl Marx – Marx
    President George W. Bush – President bush or the president
    The rule is that if both full form as well as short form is present in different sentences, then the sentence containing full form will come before the sentence containing short form. Approach (TSA)

 

  • Chronology Words Approach :
    Either dates or time sequence indicating words: Be aware of the time indication either by giving years – or by using time indicating words. Arrange the sentences using their proper time sequence. Here are a few time sequence indicating words -Before after later when

 

  • Hypothesis or Theory Approach
    If any sentence is working as an example – place it after the sentence for which it is working as an example, not necessarily just after – because one has to explain the idea, it is hypothesis/ theory. It should not be before the idea that it explains.

 

  • Articles Approach :
    Articles can be divided into two categories –
    1. Definite (the) and
    2. Indefinite (a and an).
    When the author uses ‘a / an’ – he wants to make a general statement – wants to introduce the noun followed by a/an for the first time but when he uses ‘the’ he wants to refer back to some previously discussed noun. It means having ‘the’ is very unlikely in the opening sentence. If ‘a/an’ and ‘the’ both are used for the same noun then the sentence containing ‘the’ will come after the sentence containing a/an.

 

  • Key Words Approach:
    Some words will be repeated in two consecutive sentences.
    In most of the cases we repeat some important words of one sentence in the sentence that follows.
    Hence if you are seeing any important (not like he, she, that, is, are type) then chances are that these two sentences will be consecutive. Remember it gives you an idea that which sentences can be consecutive for example 23 or 32 but for exact order you have to look for some other clue or meaning.

 

  • Structure Approach:
    Link sentences logically i.e.
    Link the sentences logically i.e. see what is the role played by a specific sentence
    Premise
    Conclusion
    Support
    Example
    Continuation
    and then search for some proper sentence that should come before or the one which will follow.

 

  • Indicating Words Approach:
    Take care of words that indicate something helpful to decide sequence.
    Some words indicates some specific nature of sentences that will come before or that will follow.
    Look for the words like
    But
    So
    Therefore
    And
    However
    think what they are indicating.

 

  • Cause and Effect Approach:
    Look for words or phrases explicitly indicating that one thing causes another or logically determines another.
    Accordingly
    in order to
    because
    so…that
    consequently
    therefore
    given
    thus
    hence
    when…then
    if…then

Practice Problems On Para Jumbled Sentences


Directions: In each of the following questions each passage consists of six sentences. The first and the sixth sentences are given in the beginning. The middle four sentences in each have been removed and jumbled up. These are labeled P,Q,R and S. You are required to find out the proper order of the four sentences.

  1. S1. One of the criticisms often made against the production of biofuel is that it requires the use of enormous areas of agricultural land, thereby reducing the available space needed to grow food.
    S6. The idea has actually been around for some time. In the United States, research began in earnest in the 1970s under President Jimmy Carter.
    P. Algae are abundant, grow in water (there are both fresh- and salt-water varieties), fast-growing and contain high concentrations of oil.
    Q. At the same time, their cultivation on a large scale would help remove CO2 from the atmosphere and provide a source of oxygen.
    R. Put this way, the cultivation of algae for biofuel production sounds like an attractive idea.
    S. But this problem could be solved by using some form of algae as the source of biofuel instead of crops like soya, sugar cane or palm
    The proper sequence should be:
    A)RQSP
    B)SPQR
    C)QSRQ
    D)RSPQ

    View Answer
    Option B
    Explanation
     : The starting sentence says that production of biofuel from  crops pose a problem because of scarcity of agricultural land so clearly S follows it as it provides the solution in the form of algae and P explains about  Algae further and Q gives the benefits it gives . And the last sentence S6 discusses some “idea “ and the word idea is given in R also so RS6 forms as pair too; giving us SPQR the correct sequence.
  2. S1. In the 1860s, a Belgian businessman called George Nagelmackers had a brilliant idea. Nagelmackers had visited the United States where he had admired the American long-distance trains.
    S6. employing the best craftsmen, designers and artists to produce his luxurious carriages.
    P. And he planned to make them even more luxurious
    Q. In 1876, he founded La Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits (literally, the International Sleeping Car Company)
    R. They were more comfortable than European trains and they were equipped with sleeping cars and restaurants
    S. Nagelmackers decided to introduce similar facilities on European trains
    The proper sequence should be:
    A)PSQP
    B)PRSQ
    C)RSPQ
    D)SQRP

    View Answer
       Option C
    Explanation
    : The starting sentence desribes the person’s visit to US where visited in the trains . The word “They were more comfortable than “European” trains in R is obviously used for the trains described  in S1 so it will follow the first sentence ; S and P describe  further; his will to make more luxurious trains  in Europe and Q is the connecting with S6 that he founded a company employing best employess. So RSPQ is the correct sequence.
  3. S1. The world food system has shown itself to be incapable of getting enough healthy food to everyone.
    S6. Clearly demand for food is going to increase dramatically and this will put the food system under considerable strain.
    P. And unless something is done, the situation is bound to get worse in the years ahead.
    Q. Around 9 million people suffer chronic hunger while a billion others consume too much, creating further health problems linked to obesity.
    R. That is an awful lot of mouths to feed.
    S. It’s said that by 2050, the world’s population is likely to have risen from the current 7 billion to around 9 billion.
    The proper sequence should be:
    A) SRQP
    B) QRSP
    C) SRQP
    D) QPSR

    View Answer
    Option D
    Explanation
     : The starting sentence tells deficiency of present world system. Q explains it further and P tells ; if not done something now this situation may be worsened .It is followed by S that projects the population of future and it connects with R.
  4. S1. There’s nothing new in the idea that adolescence is a difficult period for everyone – the adolescents themselves, of course, as well as for their parents
    S6. This new knowledge, it is hoped, will help all of us deal better with the difficult and often painful years of transition from childhood to adulthood.
    P. Quite simply, the two generations live worlds apart. Now, psychologists are beginning to understand the biological basis for this eternal conflict.
    Q. Teenagers’ brains really are different from those of their parents and a fully adult brain may not develop until well after the teenage years.
    R. For their part, adolescents can’t understand what their parents are worried about; they find their tastes and responsible concerns boring and outdated
    S. From an adult point of view, adolescents are difficult, rebellious, irresponsible, often selfish and self absorbed, prone to dangerous behaviour that risks their health, their life and their possibility of future happiness.
    The proper sequence should be:
    A) PSRQ
    B) SRQP
    C) QSRP
    D) SRPQ

    View Answer
    Option D
    Explanation 
    : S and R make a pair here and follows the starting sentence .P gives a conclusion of the three previous statements and Q tells the  biological reason for this  conflict between the generations  which connects with S6 .
  5. S1. In his preface to the 1843 edition of “A Christmas Carol” Charles Dickens expressed the hope that his “Ghostly little book” would pleasantly haunt its readers and that it should not put his readers out of humour with themselves, each other, or with the author of the book.
    S6. And in book form, there are numerous adaptations for children.
    P. The book sums up for many people what Christmas is all about and it is often said that the Carol, along with Dickens’s other Christmas books, defines the very idea of the true Christmas spirit.
    Q. The secret of its everlasting appeal is its bold simplicity and vivid imagery.
    R. Few would doubt that Dickens wholeheartedly succeeded in this aim.
    S. A striking testimony to its overwhelming popularity is the fact that over 200 film versions have been made, including the celebrated Muppet version starring Michael Caine as Scrooge.
    The proper sequence should be:
    A) RQPS
    B) RPQS
    C) SQPR
    D) PRQS

    View Answer
    Option B
    Explanation : The first sentence ; the aim of Charles dickens’ to haunt the readers is talked about and R acknowledges this aim to be successful so it is the second sentence S6 is saying bout the book form of this edition so it is preceded by the sentence S which talks about  film version of the same . so we are left with P and Q ; and from the use of pronouns we can infer that P is to be followed by Q; thus giving the correct sequence to be RPQS.
  1. S1. A new word has entered the English language in the last year: plasticarian: in other words, someone who attempts to live a plastic-free life.
    S6. whose dislike of the stuff began after he had spent so much time in the laboratory studying it.
    P. Despite this weird connotation, the term is rapidly catching on and more and more people are eagerly looking for ways of eliminating plastic from their lives.
    Q. The term is a strange one, as it sounds a bit like “vegetarian”, suggesting that a plasticarian is someone who eats only plastic.
    R. This means buying no products made of plastic or covered in plastic packaging, and making use of as little plastic as possible in the home.
    S. The term was apparently coined by Thomas Smith, a chemistry PhD student at Manchester University
    The proper sequence should be:
    A) SRPQ
    B) QPRS
    C) RQPS
    D) QRPS

    View Answer
    Option C
    Explanation : The sentence that can follow S1 is R and S6 should be precede by S ; remaining are P and Q ; QP is the correct pair. RQPS is the correct sequence.
  1. S1. Women have often encountered obstacles when attempting to start their own businesses
    S6. They are just as capable as men at founding, running and growing a new business.
    P. Some women have found difficulties overseeing the work of male subordinates or dealing with male counterparts
    Q. Then there is the issue of family duties, with women expected play the major role in taking care of children and managing the home.
    R. Banks have been more reluctant to offer financing to women planning to launch a new business
    S. Fortunately, however, the situation is changing, and today more and more women are proving to the world that
    The proper sequence should be:
    A) RPQS
    B) PQRS
    C) RQPS
    D) QRPS

    View Answer
    Option A
    Explanation
     : First sentence talking about business issues so R is the next sentence followed by P’ and Q then S6 is a positive statement so the previous one should be S.
  2. S1. Back in 1985, journalist, filmmaker and dolphin expert Hardy Jones was filming dolphins near the Bahamas when an unwanted visitor appeared upon the scene: a hammerhead shark.
    S6. The four young dolphins harassed the shark, working as a unit, diving and turning in unison like a squadron of fighter planes flying precision man oeuvres until the hammerhead gave up and swam out to sea.
    P. Then, to his complete surprise, something remarkable happened. “Suddenly the undersea world came alive with high-pitched whistles and intense sonar bursts.
    Q. Two juvenile dolphins… appeared over my left shoulder. I flinched as I felt the wash they created streaking through the water straight for the hammerhead.
    R. What’s more, it was heading straight for Jones, intent on attack. Jones thrust his camera in front of him as a means of protection while he considered his options.
    S. In an instant, two buddies joined them, bolting in from the right,” writes Jones in his blog.
    The proper sequence should be:
    A) PRSQ
    B) RPQS
    C) RPSQ
    D) PRQS

    View Answer
    Option B
    Explanation
     : The sentence1 tells about an incident that happened during the expert’s shooting in the sea R follows it correctly; and P connect with it so RP is the pair. Q and S are left now; but the word “ them” in S signifies previously talked two things (dolphins) so it has to be Q so the correct sequence is RPQS.
  3. S1.Introverted people are often seen as socially inept and their talents are so easily overlooked.
    S6. Few people find it pleasant to be seen as misfit.
    P. But as modern society tends to place a high value on extroversion (life is a performance!), the chances are that you’ll suffer at some stage for it.
    Q. Introverts are a minority in this extroverted world, much in the way that left-handed people find that a lot of things are designed with right-handed people in mind.
    R. As computer scientist, blogger and introvert Mark Dykeman writes: Simply put, introverts face the daily challenge of feeling like square pegs being shoved into round holes.
    S. If you’re an introvert, you probably didn’t choose it; it’s just your nature.
    The proper sequence should be:
    A) SRQP
    B) PRQS
    C) SPRQ
    D) QPSR

    View Answer
    Option C
    Explanation
     :The word “You” in S and P makes them a pair ; and the conjunction But signifies S is the first part and P will follow it ; R tells that the writer writes about the problems of introverts and Q complements this saying giving the correct SPRQ.
  4. S1. In the mid-1970s, Bangladeshi economist Mohammed Yuru believed he had hit upon an ingenious way of reducing poverty.
    S6. As a result, all the profit from the sale of their baskets was paid back to the money lender and the cycle of poverty continued.
    P. who would lend sums of money at exorbitant rates of interest – sometimes as much as 120%.
    Q. Being very poor people, it was impossible to get a loan from a bank, so they often had recourse to loan sharks
    R. After visiting poor villages in his native country he realized that if people could get a small loan to start a small business, they could make enough money to pay back the debt and eventually prosper.
    S. He noticed, for example, that basket weavers in one village he visited sometimes couldn’t afford to buy the bamboo they needed to make the wares they would later sell.
    The proper sequence should be:
    A) RQPS
    B) QPRP
    C) RSQP
    D) SRPQ

    View Answer
    Option C
    Explanation
     : R and S connect with each other and so does P and Q . The sequence will be RSQP.

As we all are aware of the fact that IBPS has introduced New Pattern English Questions in recent Bank PO exams. So here we are with Sentence Rearrangement topic based on the new pattern as asked in recent exams. This pattern is more time taking than the previous one. New Pattern Sentence Rearrangement English SBI PO

Direction: In each of the following questions few statements are given. You have to arrange them and choose the correct arrangement from the given options.

  1. a) Now a distinguished observer of the universe and a proponent of underlying laws that govern it, Stephen Hawking has pointed out in a BBC programme that human beings need to colonise a planet soon and they must start in the next 100 years if the species is to be kept alive.
    b) Science fiction has traditionally used its imagination to show earthlings in a struggle with beings from another planet.
    c) Only recently in movies has the tide been turned towards making an attempt to colonise other planets, mainly Mars.
    d) This is because humanity is in danger of extinction because of climate change, overpopulation, chemical and nuclear wars.
    A) bcda
    B) bdac
    C) cadb
    D) bcad
    E) cabd

    View Answer
    Option D
    Explanation
    : Correct Order: bcad.
    sentences a) c) and d) starts with words that cannot be used as an introductory line. Option B) is hence the introduction line. Followed by c) giving an example of the same. d) explains a) and hence follows it. So order is bcad
  2. (a) This particular worldwide security threat, which hasn’t yet run its course, was dismantled by a UK security expert who activated an address that the “kill switch” in the ransomware was compelled to search for.
    (b) ranging from the UK National Health Service to a French carmaker with an alliance plant in Chennai, the German railways, the Andhra Pradesh police and entire Russian systems.
    (c) A massive cyberattack brought computers to a halt on Friday and Saturday, the malware affecting over one lakh computers and systems in nearly 150 nations worldwide,
    (d) Such ransomware attacks are commonplace, with an estimated 600 million attacks likely recorded in 2016 alone.
    A) cbda
    B) cdba
    C) cadb
    D) adbc
    E) abdc

    View Answer
    Option A
    Explanation
    : Correct Order: cbda
    c) is the starting sentence as it introduces the passage. Followed by b) then d) tells about various such incidence that have occurred in past, and then a) highlights this particular threat.
  3. a) This sector employs 42.5 lakh Indians directly, and has created over twice as many jobs indirectly in other fields.
    b) Automation would then replace entry-level jobs, denying jobs to college-leavers, and lead to the retrenchment of mid-level professionals who couldn’t remain relevant via constant reskilling.
    c) The landscape of the $150-billion IT sector, one of India’s largest job-providers, is changing fast, owing to technological advances in automation and robotics.
    d) But it is gradually moving away from the linear growth model, with rise in revenue matching net employee addition, to a non-linear one where income growth is independent of additional hiring.
    A) cdba
    B) abdc
    C) badc
    D) cadb
    E) dcba

    View Answer
    Option D
    Explanation
    : Correct order: cadb
  4. a) All jobs that don’t require exceptional thought processes and those that could be accomplished by analysing data with a simple algorithm could be replaced.
    b) A study by Oxford University suggested that 100 professions or occupations are at risk of being eliminated by automation in the future.
    c) It is a matter of concern as with growing population, the demand for jobs is also on rise.
    d) People whose jobs require them to come up with solutions on a case- by-case basis can rest assured that their jobs will not be replaced.
    A) abdc
    B) badc
    C) dcab
    D) dcba
    E) cdab

    View Answer
    Option B
    Explanation
    : Correct order: badc
  5. a) India’s IT sector must make the Digital India programme its pivot for India-focused opportunities, whose solutions could be profitably deployed in a large number of developing countries.
    b) With around 16 lakh graduates entering the job market every year amid slow job creation due to global protectionism and automation threats, the urgent issue for the Indian government is to redesign its job creation strategy.
    c) As former RBI governor Raghuram Rajan once said, it’s time for the government and Indian industry to focus on “Make for India”, rather than the export-driven “Make in India”.
    d) The focus on the export-led model alone may not work.
    A) dbca
    B) bdac
    C) acdb
    D) cadb
    E) cdab

    View Answer
    Option B
    Explanation
    : Correct Order is: bdac
  6. c) In the United States, the world’s most advanced nation, there has been a strange issue that is being discussed. It is being written about in books, and there are talks on it (which one can access on YouTube), but there is yet no action on it, though this is expected soon.
    b) The issue is that of artificial intelligence becoming smarter than man.
    d) To us in India this does not seem like something to think about much. Computers are to us devices that we have control over. Our laptop or mobile phone is to us a tool and our servant. It is not our master.
    a) However in America, some of the smartest people working on technology are thinking about and discussing what will happen when artificial intelligence, meaning computer programs, overtakes man in the ability to think.
    A) bcad
    B) adcb
    C) badc
    D) cbda
    E) bacd

    View Answer
    Option D
    Explanation
    : The correct order is: cbda
  7. a) The incident involving a Jet Airways expat pilot who allegedly not only harassed a woman passenger but also apparently assaulted her and let loose racist abuse at Indians in general, and a physically challenged passenger in particular, is disgraceful.
    b) But when such a nasty trait is publicly displayed by a foreigner working in India for an Indian airline, it shows how acute the problem of racism is in our country. The airline expressed regret and de-rostered the pilot, but only belatedly after cricketer Harbhajan Singh tweeted on it.
    c) But it’s clear a fuller remedy is needed: this problem simply can’t be tolerated where the customer and the staff interact face to face.
    d) Racism of all kinds may be inherent in a variety of people.
    A) abdc
    B) dcab
    C) adbc
    D) cadb
    E) dbca

    View Answer
    Option C
    Explanation
    : Correct Order is: adbc

Direction (8-10): Rearrange the given sentence to form a meaningful passage and answer the questions that follow.

a) Why are fewer Americans paying for the sports leader? One big reason is that fewer people are subscribing to pay-television overall—a phenomenon known as “cord-cutting”.
b) This has turned off customers and potential customers. Sports fans can get highlights free on social media; non-sports fans can get their fix from Netflix and Amazon.
c) For much of this century ESPN, the television sports network, has been Disney’s cash machine, collecting billions more dollars from American subscribers each year than the company gets from its blockbuster “Star Wars”, Marvel and Pixar films combined.
d) As the bundle of channels offered to homes has grown fatter, it has also become more expensive—the typical pay-TV bill in America has nearly doubled in a decade to more than $100 a month.
e) But for the past six years, fewer and fewer people have been paying for ESPN: the network’s subscribers base has declined from a peak of 100m households in 2011 to less than 88m now.
f) ESPN is by far the most expensive channel in the bundle—the network gets paid $7.86 per subscriber, according to Kagan, a research firm, while no other basic cable channel commands even $2 per subscriber.

  1. Which of the following is the third sentence after rearrangement?
    A) a
    B) b
    C) c
    D) d
    E) e

    View Answer
    Option A
    Explanation
    : The correct sequence is: ceadbf
  2. Which of the following is the fifth sentence after rearrangement?
    A) f
    B) b
    C) a
    D) c
    E) e

    View Answer
    Option B
  3. Which of the following is the second sentence after rearrangement?
    A) f
    B) e
    C) d
    D) a
    E) c

    View Answer
    Option B

Rearrange the following sentences in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph then answer the following questions.

A. These banks offered a voluntary retirement scheme to improve performance by weeding out the inefficient, and, to the surprise and utter dismay of the banks, many of the competent people took up the offer and joined private banks!
B. Your Turn Now: Are you able to attract great talent for your startup, What is your strategy for organizational culture?
C. How are you ensuring learning and growth opportunities?
D. It is common knowledge that many people in the public sector banks in India were not very work-oriented and efficient.
E. It has to focus on elements of ownership and fairness and also focus on continuous learning and growth opportunities for its employees.
F. Take Aways: Organisational culture matters the most for creating a successful startup.

  1. Which would be the Second sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.B
    2.A
    3.D
    4.F
    5.E

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2.A
  2. Which would be the Fifth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.D
    2.A
    3.E
    4.C
    5.B

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5.B
  3. Which would be the First sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.A
    3.C
    4.D
    5.B

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4.D
  4. Which would be the Third sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.A
    3.C
    4.F
    5.B

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4.F
  5. Which would be Fourth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.B
    2.D
    3.C
    4.A
    5.E

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5.E

    II. Rearrange the following sentences in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph then answer the following questions.

    A. China holds the key to reining in North Korea, with coercion or otherwise.
    B. They champion inclusive globalisation and a rules-based, transparent and multilateral trading system, even as the US wants bilateral agreements that put America First and Europe focuses on internal turmoil.
    C. The group has renewed its call for reforms in the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and United Nations to reflect changing global realities.
    D. This would have been more credible if BRICS could come up with something with more teeth on North Korea’s nuclear aggression than calling for resolution “through peaceful means and dialogue”.
    E. The Xiamen declaration of the Brics reiterates the group’s commitment to addressing climate change and expanding green finance, and proposes a Brics bond fund in local currency.
    F. As the biggest beneficiaries of globalisation, the five nations, Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, which constitute Brics have come out strongly in favour of an open and inclusive world economy.

  6. Which is the Fourth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.A
    3.C
    4.F
    5.D

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1.E
  7. Which is the First sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.C
    2.B
    3.E
    4.F
    5.D

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4.F
  8. Which is the Fifth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.B
    2.A
    3.G
    4.E
    5.D

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5.D
  9. Which is the Second sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.D
    3.C
    4.B
    5.A

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4.B
  10. Which is the Third sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.A
    2.E
    3.D
    4.B
    5.C

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5.C
    Answer & Explanation
    Correct sequence – 1
    A. It is common knowledge that many people in the public sector banks in India were not very work-oriented and efficient.
    B. These banks offered a voluntary retirement scheme to improve performance by weeding out the inefficient, and, to the surprise and utter dismay of the banks, many of the competent people took up the offer and joined private banks!
    C. Take Aways: Organisational culture matters the most for creating a successful startup.
    D. It has to focus on elements of ownership and fairness and also focus on continuous learning and growth opportunities for its employees.
    E. Your Turn Now: Are you able to attract great talent for your startup? What is your strategy for organizational culture?
    F. How are you ensuring learning and growth opportunities?
    Answer & Explanation
    Correct sequence – 2
    A. As the biggest beneficiaries of globalisation, the five nations, Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, which constitute Brics have come out strongly in favour of an open and inclusive world economy.
    B. They champion inclusive globalisation and a rules-based, transparent and multilateral trading system, even as the US wants bilateral agreements that put America First and Europe focuses on internal turmoil.
    C. The group has renewed its call for reforms in the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and United Nations to reflect changing global realities.
    D. The Xiamen declaration of the Brics reiterates the group’s commitment to addressing climate change and expanding green finance, and proposes a Brics bond fund in local currency.
    E. This would have been more credible if BRICS could come up with something with more teeth on North Korea’s nuclear aggression than calling for resolution “through peaceful means and dialogue”.
    F. China holds the key to reining in North Korea, with coercion or otherwise.

Rearrange the following sentences in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph then answer the following questions.

A. Since life embraces all without distinction, its lessons become a shared experience.
B. The tradition of holding our teachers in reverence is steeped in traditions of the East.
C. In this experience the teacher and student enter into a relationship in which both are students and teachers of one another.
D. The wisdom that the sages of old acquired was synonymous with knowledge in as much as it meant not just scriptural knowledge or assimilation of information but knowledge gained from experience of life’s lessons.
E. There is no room for superiority.
F. It grew out of an acknowledgement that learning is not something to be hoarded; it is to be passed on.

  1. Which would be the Second sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.B
    2.A
    3.D
    4.F
    5.E

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4.F
  2. Which would be the Fifth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.D
    2.A
    3.E
    4.C
    5.B

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4.C
  3. Which would be the First sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.A
    3.C
    4.D
    5.B

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5.B
  4. Which would be the Third sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.A
    3.D
    4.F
    5.B

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3.D
  5. Which would be Fourth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.B
    2.D
    3.C
    4.A
    5.E

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4.A

    II. Rearrange the following sentences in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph then answer the following questions.

    A. The government is right to investigate shell companies that anonymise transactions or have no apparent operational business.
    B. Preliminary action should be followed up by a speedy and time-bound investigation to separate wrongdoers from the rest.
    C. Owners of shell companies name their cooks and chauffeurs as board directors, to obscure ownership. G. The need is to mandate companies to declare their beneficial owners.
    D. Detection of shell companies entails intelligence gathering, data mining and information-sharing among enforcement agencies.
    E. Their purpose might be to launder money, or not.
    F. However, common Director Identification Numbers (DIN) in multiple companies or companies with the same address will not suffice to track the ultimate beneficiary.

  6. Which is the Fourth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.A
    3.C
    4.F
    5.D

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1.E
  7. Which is the First sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.C
    2.B
    3.E
    4.A
    5.D

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4.A
  8. Which is the Fifth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.B
    2.C
    3.G
    4.E
    5.D

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2.C
  9. Which is the Second sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.D
    3.C
    4.B
    5.F

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5.F
  10. Which is the Third sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.A
    2.E
    3.D
    4.B
    5.C

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4.B
    Answer & Explanation
    Correct sequence – 1
    A. The tradition of holding our teachers in reverence is steeped in traditions of the East.
    B. It grew out of an acknowledgement that learning is not something to be hoarded; it is to be passed on.
    C. The wisdom that the sages of old acquired was synonymous with knowledge in as much as it meant not just scriptural knowledge or assimilation of information but knowledge gained from experience of life’s lessons.
    D. Since life embraces all without distinction, its lessons become a shared experience.
    E. In this experience the teacher and student enter into a relationship in which both are students and teachers of one another.
    F. There is no room for superiority.
    Answer & Explanation
    Correct sequence – 2
    A. The government is right to investigate shell companies that anonymise transactions or have no apparent operational business.
    B. Their purpose might be to launder money, or not.
    C. Preliminary action should be followed up by a speedy and time-bound investigation to separate wrongdoers from the rest.
    D. Detection of shell companies entails intelligence gathering, data mining and information-sharing among enforcement agencies.
    E. Owners of shell companies name their cooks and chauffeurs as board directors, to obscure ownership. F. However, common Director Identification Numbers (DIN) in multiple companies or companies with the same address will not suffice to track the ultimate beneficiary.
    G. The need is to mandate companies to declare their beneficial owners.

Rearrange the following sentences in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph then answer the following questions.

A. The Reserve Bank of India can surely now claim its rightful place in the Guinness or Limca books for the world record in time spent on a single count of currency notes.
B. The ministry says the number of income tax returns filed in 2016-17 was almost 25% higher than in the previous year, This sounds impressive, but is hardly unprecedented.
C. In 2011-12, for instance, the number grew by over 80% and in the next year by over 30%.
D. Whatever its critics may say, there is one unambiguous achievement of the demonetisation drive.
E. But what about the other benefits that the finance ministry claimed after RBI announced the results of this mahayajna of counting?
F. Clearly, it is possible to achieve a dramatic increase in the number of those filing returns without the shock and awe of a midnight demonetisation.

  1. Which would be the Second sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.B
    2.A
    3.D
    4.F
    5.E

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2.A
  2. Which would be the Fifth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.D
    2.A
    3.E
    4.C
    5.B

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4.C
  3. Which would be the First sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.A
    3.C
    4.D
    5.B

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4.D
  4. Which would be the Third sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.A
    3.C
    4.F
    5.B

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1.E
  5. Which would be Fourth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.B
    2.D
    3.C
    4.A
    5.E

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1.B

    II. Rearrange the following sentences in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph then answer the following questions.

    A. The rationale given is it will make for more equitable distribution of reservation benefits by barring high ranking PSU officials and their kin who fall under the central list of OBC category.
    B. The ultimate aim was to end discrimination which would eventually phase out reservations.
    C. Our founding fathers had propagated the policy of reservation as a vehicle for providing equal opportunities to downtrodden sections of the society.
    D. The government has expanded the ambit of ‘creamy layer’ within OBCs to a few positions in public sector undertakings and financial institutions.
    E. But it can best be described as a short-term measure.
    F. But the government appears to make the means more entrenched than the end which is to create a level playing field.

  6. Which is the Fourth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.A
    3.C
    4.F
    5.D

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3.C
  7. Which is the First sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.C
    2.B
    3.E
    4.F
    5.D

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5.D
  8. Which is the Fifth sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.B
    2.A
    3.G
    4.E
    5.D

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1.B
  9. Which is the Second sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.E
    2.D
    3.C
    4.B
    5.A

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5.A
  10. Which is the Third sentence after Rearrangement?
    1.A
    2.E
    3.D
    4.B
    5.F

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2.E
    Answer & Explanation
    Correct Sequence – 1
    A. Whatever its critics may say, there is one unambiguous achievement of the demonetisation drive.
    B. The Reserve Bank of India can surely now claim its rightful place in the Guinness or Limca books for the world record in time spent on a single count of currency notes.
    C. But what about the other benefits that the finance ministry claimed after RBI announced the results of this mahayajna of counting?
    D. The ministry says the number of income tax returns filed in 2016-17 was almost 25% higher than in the previous year, This sounds impressive, but is hardly unprecedented.
    E. In 2011-12, for instance, the number grew by over 80% and in the next year by over 30%.
    F. Clearly, it is possible to achieve a dramatic increase in the number of those filing returns without the shock and awe of a midnight demonetisation.
    Answer & Explanation
    Correct Sequence – 2
    A. The government has expanded the ambit of ‘creamy layer’ within OBCs to a few positions in public sector undertakings and financial institutions.
    B. The rationale given is it will make for more equitable distribution of reservation benefits by barring high ranking PSU officials and their kin who fall under the central list of OBC category.
    C. But it can best be described as a short-term measure.
    D. Our founding fathers had propagated the policy of reservation as a vehicle for providing equal opportunities to downtrodden sections of the society.
    E. The ultimate aim was to end discrimination which would eventually phase out reservations.
    F. But the government appears to make the means more entrenched than the end which is to create a level playing field.

 

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