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Learning English Grammar Part 2

1. Tenses:

There are 3 types of tenses

Taking a sentence as an example: Yash eats food.

  • Past:
  1. Simple: Yash ate food.
  2. Continuous: Yash was eating food.
  3. Perfect: Yash had eaten food.
  4. Perfect Continuous: Yash had been eating his food.
  • Present
  1. Simple: Yash eats food.
  2. Continuous: Yash is eating food.
  3. Perfect: Yash has eaten food.
  4. Perfect Continuous: Yash has been eating food
  • Future
  1. Simple: Yash will eat food.
  2. Continuous: Yash will be eating food.
  3. Perfect: Yash will have eaten food.
  4. Perfect Continuous: Yash will have been eating food.

NOTE: Many of the above-mentioned sentences are not used commonly in the English language but have been used here as a reference.

2. Active and Passive Voice

  • Active: It is the verb that expresses the action done by the subject. E.g. Ram helps me.
  • Passive: It is the verb that expresses what is done to the subject. E.g. I am helped by Ram

Conversion examples:

  • The man shot the woman- The woman was shot by the man.
  • The child will be taught- He will teach the child.

3. Direct and Indirect Speech

In direct speech, we quote the actual words of the speaker like:

The Earth revolves around the Sun”, said the teacher.

In indirect speech, we give the exact meaning of a remark or speech, without quoting the speaker.

Rules for changing the speech from direct to indirect:

  • If the Reporting verb is in the present tense, the tense of the verb in the reported speech is changed to the corresponding past tense (eg. Simple present becomes simple past, present continuous becomes past continuous).
  • If the Reporting verb is in the future tense, the tense of the verb is changed as follows: Simple future tense becomes future conditional and future conditional becomes conditional continuous tense. (eg.’“I will become a doctor”, said Reena’ becomes ‘Reena said she would become a doctor’.)
  • If the Reporting verb is in the past tense, the tense of the verb in the reported speech is changed into an earlier form of the past tense. (eg. ‘“I went to Disneyland,” said Ben’ becomes ‘Ben said he had gone to Disneyland’.)
  • Pronouns and possessive adjectives of the First and Second Persons in Direct Speech are changed into Third Person in Indirect Speech.
  • In the Reported Speech, the words expressing nearness of time or place are changed into words showing distance. (for eg. ‘here’ becomes ‘there’ and ‘now’ becomes ‘then’.)

4. Articles

There are 3 articles in the English language:

  • A: It is used to describe any one indefinite thing and is used before words beginning with consonants(eg. a table) or with sounds like ‘yu’, ‘wu’ or ‘h’ (a eulogy, a one-eyed man, a horse )
  • An: It is used in the same context as ‘a’ but before words beginning with vowels (an apple), or where a word/letter is pronounced like a vowel even though it may start with a consonant (an honour, anA.)
  • The: It is used to denote a definite, particular thing like the book, the road, the

Articles are omitted in certain cases like when describing some nouns (London), meal-time (dinner, supper) or phrases that use ‘kind of’ (What kind of flower)

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