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Logical Reasoning – Solved Examples

Types:
Based on Shapes
Based on Two Series of Numbers
Based on Numbers/Words

Based on Shapes:(SBI Clerk 2016 Pattern):

In the following question, Hexagon represents the people who live in Hyderabad and like Blue, Triangle represents the people who live in Bengaluru and like Pink, Rectangle represents the people who live in Mumbai and like Red and Circle represents the people who live in Chennai and like Yellow.

  1. How many persons like blue and belong to Bengaluru?
    A. 24
    B. 32
    C. 36
    D. 30
    E. 18
    Ans – D. 30
    Explanation:
    Persons like Blue and belong to Bengaluru = 8 + 22 = 30
    Triangle represents Bengaluru
    Hexagon represents the people who like Blue
  2. How many persons like Blue, Yellow and Red together?
    A. 25
    B. 32
    C. 36
    D. 38
    E. None of these
    Ans – A. 25
    Explanation:
    Persons like Blue, Yellow and Red together = 25 persons only.
    Hexagon represents the people who like Blue
    Rectangle represents the people who like Red
    Circle represents the people who like Yellow

Based on Series of Numbers:(SBI PO Mains 2016 Pattern)

In each of the following questions, two rows of numbers are given. The resultant number in each row is to be worked out separately based on the following rules and the questions below the rows of numbers are to be answered. The operations of numbers progress from the left to the right.

Rules:
(i) If an odd number is followed by a composite odd number, they are to be multiplied.
(ii) If an even number is followed by an odd number they are to be added.
(iii) If an even number is followed by a number which is the perfect square, the even number is to be subtracted from the perfect square.
(iv) If an odd number is followed by a prime odd number, the first number is to be divided by the second number.
(v) If an odd number is followed by an even number the second one is to be subtracted from the first number.

  1. I. 68 7 5
    II. 85 5 a
    If ‘a’ is the resultant of the first row what is the resultant of second row?
    A. 255
    B. 232
    C. 249
    D. 234
    E. None of the Above
    Ans – A. 255
    Explanation:
    68 + 7 = 75 [Rule II] – If an even number is followed by an odd number they are to be added.
    75 / 5 = 15 [Rule IV] – If an odd number is followed by a prime odd number, the first number is to be divided by the second number.
    a = 15
    85 / 5 = 17 [Rule IV] – If an odd number is followed by a prime odd number, the first number is to be divided by the second number.
    17 * 15 = 255.[Rule I] – If an odd number is followed by a composite odd number, they are to be multiplied.
  2. I. 12 36 15
    II. b 13 15
    If b is the resultant of the first row, what will be the resultant of the second row?
    A. 65
    B. 75
    C. 20If an odd number is followed by a composite odd number, they are to be multiplied.
    D. 45
    E. None of the Above
    Ans – D. 45
    Explanation:
    36 – 12 = 24 [Rule III] – If an even number is followed by a number which is the perfect square, the even number is to be subtracted from the perfect square.
    24 + 15 = 39 [Rule II] – If an even number is followed by an odd number they are to be added.
    b = 39
    39 / 13 = 3 [Rule IV] – If an odd number is followed by a prime odd number, the first number is to be divided by the second number.
    3 * 15 = 45 [Rule I]- If an odd number is followed by a composite odd number, they are to be multiplied.

Based on Numbers/Words – Single Series:(All Clerical Level Exams)

Study the sets of numbers given below and answer the questions which follow:

229    642   821   476   308

  1. Which of the following numbers will be obtained if the second digit of the lowest number is added to the third digit of the highest number after adding four to each number?
    A. 5
    B. 6
    C. 7
    D. 8
    E. None of the Above
    Ans – D. 8
    Explanation:
    Lowest Number = 229 + 4 = 233
    Highest Number = 821 + 4 = 825
    3 + 5 = 8
  2. If the digits in each of the five numbers are arranged in descending order, the position of how many numbers will not change?
    A. None
    B. One
    C. Two
    D. Three
    E. Four
    Ans – C. Two
    Explanation: Original Series – 229  642  821  476  308
    Rearranged Series – 922 642 821 764 830
    642 821

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