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NABARD ( Agriculture & Rural Development) – Field Crop ,Classification of field crops

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Field crop – a crop (other than fruits or vegetables) that is grown for agricultural purposes; “cotton, hay, and grain are field crops” crop – a cultivated plant that is grown commercially on a large scale. field corn – corn grown primarily for animal feed or market grain.

Field crops may be classified in more than one way.

It may be on the basis of:

  • The climate in which they are grown
  • The season in which grown
  • Life of the crop plant
  • Source of water
  • Root system of the crop plant
  • Economic importance of the crop
  • Botanical or morphological similarity in crops.

For cultivation following classifications are used commonly:-

                                                    Classification on the basis of climate

Tropical crops – rice, sugarcane etc

Temperate crops – wheat, gram etc

 

                                                         Classification on the basis of season

Kharif Crops – Crops which are grown in monsoon months (from June to October)

e.g. Rice, Jowar, Bajara, Groundnut.

 

Rabi Crops – Crops which are grown in winter season (from October to March)

e.g. Wheat, gram, safflower, etc.

 

Summer Crops – Crops which are grown in summer (from March to June)

e.g. summer groundnut, water melon, cucumber etc.

 

                 Classification on the basis of Botanical or morphological similarity in crops

 

                                  Classification on the basis of Economic Importance

Cereals: Jowar, Maize, Ragi, Paddy, Wheat etc.
Pulse: Green gram, red gram, black gram etc.
Legumes: Cowpea, Field bean
Oilseeds: Sunflower, sesame, groundnut etc.
Fibre crops: Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane etc.
Fodder crops:    Jowar, Bajara, Maize, Lucerne etc

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