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Reading Comprehension Tips & Tricks 2

Reading Comprehension Tips & Tricks


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Reading Skills are a perennial topic for standardized tests.

At first sight, reading comprehension tests look challenging especially if you are given long essays to answer only two to three questions. While reading, you might notice your attention wandering, or you may feel sleepy. Do not be discouraged because there are various tactics and long
range strategies that make comprehending even long, boring essays easier.
Your friends before your foes. It is always best to tackle essays or passages with familiar subjects rather than those with unfamiliar ones. This approach applies the same logic as tackling easy questions before hard ones. Skip passages that do not interest you and leave them for later when there is more time.

Don’t use ‘special’ reading techniques. This is not the time for speed-reading or anything like that – just plain ordinary reading – not too slow and not too fast.

Read through the entire passage and the questions
before you do anything. Many students try reading the questions first and then looking for answers in the passage thinking this approach is more efficient. What these students do not realize is that it is often hard to navigate in unfamiliar roads. If you do not familiarize yourself with the
passage first, looking for answers become not only time consuming
but also dangerous because you might miss the context of the answer you are looking for. If you read the questions first you will only confuse yourself and lose valuable time.

Familiarize yourself with reading comprehension questions.
If you are familiar with the common types of reading questions, you are able to take note of important parts of the passage, saving time. There are six major kinds of reading questions.

• Main Idea– Questions that ask for the central
thought or significance of the passage.
Reading 29
• Specific Details – Questions that asks for explicitly
stated ideas.
• Drawing Inferences – Questions that ask for a statement’s
intended meaning.
• Tone or Attitude – Questions that test your ability to
sense the emotional state of the author.
• Context Meaning – Questions that ask for the meaning
of a word depending on the context.
• Technique – Questions that ask for the method of
organization or the writing style of the author.

Read. Read. Read. The best preparation for reading comprehension
tests is always to read, read and read. If you are not used to reading lengthy passages, you will probably lose concentration. Increase your attention span by making a habit out of reading.

Reading Comprehension tests become less daunting when you have trained yourself to read and understand fast. Always remember that it is easier to understand passages you are interested in. Do not read through passages hastily. Make mental notes of ideas that you think might be asked.

Reading Strategy

When facing the reading comprehension section of a standardized test, you need a strategy to be successful. You want to keep several steps in mind:

• First, make a note of the time and the number of
sections. Time your work accordingly. Typically, four to
five minutes per section is sufficient. Second, read the
directions for each selection thoroughly before beginning
(and listen well to any additional verbal instructions, as they will often clarify obscure or confusing written guidelines). You must know exactly how to do what you’re about to do!

• Now you’re ready to begin reading the selection.
Read the passage carefully, noting significant characters or events on a scratch sheet of paper or underlining on the test sheet. Many students find making a basic list in the margins helpful. Quickly jot down or
underline one-word summaries of characters, notable happenings, numbers, or key ideas. This will help you better retain information and focus wandering thoughts. Remember, however, that your main goal in
doing this is to find the information that answers the questions. Even if you find the passage interesting, remember your goal and work fast but stay on track.

• Now read the question and all the choices. Now you have read the passage, have a general idea of the main ideas, and have marked the important points. Read the question and all the choices. Never choose an answer without reading them all! Questions are often designed to confuse – stay focused and clear. Usually the answer choices will focus on one or two facts or inferences from the passage. Keep these clear in your mind.

• Search for the answer. With a very general idea of what the different choices are, go back to the passage and scan for the relevant information. Watch for big words, unusual or unique words. These make your job
easier as you can scan the text for the particular word.

• Mark the Answer. Now you have the key information the question is looking for. Go back to the question, quickly scan the choices and mark the correct one. Understand and practice the different types of standardized reading comprehension tests. See the list above for the different types. Typically, there will be several questions dealing
with facts from the selection, a couple more inference questions dealing with logical consequences of those facts, and periodically an application-oriented question surfaces to force you to make connections with what you already know.

Some students prefer to answer the questions as listed, and feel classifying the question and then ordering is wasting precious time. Other students prefer to answer the different types of questions in order of how easy or difficult they are.

The choice is yours and do whatever works for you. If you want to try answering in order of difficulty, here is a recommended order, answer fact questions first; they’re easily found within the passage. Tackle inference problems next, after re-reading the question(s) as many times as you need to. Application or ‘best guess’ questions usually take the
longest, so, save them for last.

Use the practice tests to try out both ways of answering and
see what works for you.

Main Idea and Supporting Details

Identifying the main idea, topic and supporting details in a passage can feel like an overwhelming task. The passages used for standardized tests can be boring and seem difficult – Test writers don’t use interesting passages or ones that talk about things most people are familiar with.

Despite these obstacles, all passages and paragraphs will have the
information you need to answer the questions. The topic of a passage or paragraph is its subject. It’s the general idea and can be summed up in a word or short phrase. On some standardized tests, there is a short description of the passage if it’s taken from a longer work. Make sure you read the description as it might state the topic of the passage. If not, read the passage and ask yourself, “Who, or what is this about?” For example:
Over the years, school uniforms have been hotly debated. Arguments are made that students have the right to show individuality and express themselves by choosing their own clothes. However, this brings up social and academic issues. Some kids cannot afford to wear the clothes they like and might be bullied by the “better dressed” students. With attention drawn to clothes and the individual, students will lose focus on class work and the reason they are in school. School uniforms should be mandatory.

Ask: What is this paragraph about?
Topic: school uniforms

Once you have the topic, it’s easier to find the main idea. The main idea is a specific statement telling what the writer wants you to know about the topic. Writers usually state the main idea as a thesis statement. If you’re looking for the main idea of a single paragraph, the main idea is called the
topic sentence and will probably be the first or last sentence.

If you’re looking for the main idea of an entire passage, look for the thesis statement in either the first or last paragraph. The main idea is usually restated in the conclusion. To find the main idea of a passage or paragraph, follow these steps:

1. Find the topic.
2. Ask yourself, “What point is the author trying to make about the topic?”
3. Create your own sentence summarizing the author’s point.
4. Look in the text for the sentence closest in meaning to yours.

Look at the example paragraph again. It’s already established that the topic of the paragraph is school uniforms.

What is the main idea/topic sentence?

Ask: “What point is the author trying to make about school uniforms?”

Summary: Students should wear school uniforms.
Topic sentence: School uniforms should be mandatory.
Main Idea: School uniforms should be mandatory.

Each paragraph offers supporting details to explain the main idea. The details could be facts or reasons, but they will always answer a question about the main idea. What? Where? Why? When? How? How much/many? Look at the example paragraph again. You’ll notice that more than one
sentence answers a question about the main idea. These are
the supporting details.

Main Idea: School uniforms should be mandatory.
Ask: Why? Some kids cannot afford to wear clothes they like and could be bullied by the “better dressed” kids.

Supporting Detail

With attention drawn to clothes and the individual, Students will lose focus on class work and the reason they are in school.

Supporting Detail

What if the author doesn’t state the main idea in a topic sentence? The passage will have an implied main idea. It’s not as difficult to find as it might seem. Paragraphs are always organized around ideas. To find an implied main idea, you need to know the topic and then find the relationship between the supporting details. Ask yourself, “What is the
point the author is making about the relationship between the details?”

Cocoa is what makes chocolate good for you. Chocolate comes in many varieties. These delectable flavors include milk chocolate, dark
chocolate, semi-sweet, and white chocolate.

Ask: What is this paragraph about?
Topic: Chocolate
Ask: What? Where? Why? When? How? How much/many?
Supporting details: Chocolate is good for you because it is made of cocoa, Chocolate is delicious, Chocolate comes in different delicious flavors

Ask: What is the relationship between the details and what is the author’s point?
Main Idea: Chocolate is good because it is healthy and it tastes good.

Testing Tips for Main Idea Questions

1. Skim the questions – not the answer choices – before reading the passage.
2. Questions about main idea might use the words “theme,” “generalization,” or “purpose.”
3. Save questions about the main idea for last. On standardized tests like the SAT, the answers to the rest of the questions can be found in order in the passage.
3. Underline topic sentences in the passage. Most tests allow you to write in your testing booklet.
4. Answer the question in your own words before looking at the answer choices. Then match your answer with an answer choice.
5. Cross out incorrect answer choices immediately to prevent confusion.
6. If two of the answer choices mean the same thing but use different words, they are BOTH incorrect.
7. If a question asks about the whole passage, cross out the answer choices that apply to only part of it.
8. If only part of the information is correct, that answer choice is incorrect.
9. An answer choice that is too broad is incorrect. All information needs to be backed up by the passage.
10. Answer choices with extreme wording are usually incorrect.

Drawing Inferences And Conclusions

Drawing inferences and making conclusions happens all the time. In fact, you probably do it every time you read—sometimes without even realizing it! For example, remember the first time that you saw the movie “The Lion King.” When you meet Scar for the first time, he is trapping a helpless mouse with his sharp claws preparing to eat it. When you see this
action you guess that Scar is going to be a bad character in the movie.

Nothing appeared to tell you this. No caption came across the bottom of the screen that said “Bad Guy.” No red arrow pointed to Scar and said “Evil Lion.” No, you made an inference about his character based on the context clue you were given. You do the same thing when you read!

When you draw an inference or make a conclusion you are doing the same thing, you are making an educated guess based on the hints the author gives you. We call these hints “context clues.” Scar trapping the innocent mouse is the context clue about Scar’s character. Usually you are making inferences and drawing conclusions the entire time that you are reading.

Whether you realize it or not, you are constantly making educated guesses based on context clues. Think about a time you were reading a book and something happened that you were expecting to happen. You’re not psychic! Actually, you were picking up on the context clues and making inferences about what was going to happen next!

Let’s try an easy example. Read the following sentences and answer the questions at the end of the passage.

Shelly really likes to help people. She loves her job because she gets to help people every single day. However, Shelly has to work long hours and she can get called in the middle of the night for emergencies. She wears a white lab coat at work and usually she carries a stethoscope.

What is most likely Shelly’s job?

a. Musician
b. Lawyer
c. Doctor
d. Teacher

This probably seemed easy. Drawing inferences isn’t always this simple, but it is the same basic principle. How did you know Shelly was a doctor? She helps people, she works long hours, she wears a white lab coat, and she gets called in for emergencies at night. Context Clues! Nowhere in the
paragraph did it say Shelly was a doctor, but you were able to draw that conclusion based on the information provided in the paragraph. This is how it’s done!

There is a catch, though. Remember that when you draw inferences based on reading, you should only use the information given to you by the author. Sometimes it is easy for us to make conclusions based on knowledge that is already in our mind—but that can lead you to drawing an incorrect inference.

For example, let’s pretend there is a bully at your school named Brent. Now let’s say you read a story and the main character’s name is Brent. You could NOT infer that the character in the story is a bully just because his name is Brent. You should only use the information given to you by
the author to avoid drawing the wrong conclusion.
Let’s try another example. Read the passage below, and answer the question.
Social media is an extremely popular new form of connecting and communicating over the internet. Since Facebook’s original launch in 2004, millions of people have joined in the social media craze. In fact, it is estimated that almost 75% of all internet users aged 18 and older use some form of social media. Facebook started at Harvard University as a way to get students connected. However, it quickly grew into a worldwide phenomenon and today, the founder of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg has an estimated net worth of 28.5 billion dollars.

Facebook is not the only social media platform, though. Other sites such as Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat have since been invented and are quickly becoming just as popular! Many social media users actually use more than one type of social media. Furthermore, most social media sites
have created mobile apps that allow people to connect via social media virtually anywhere in the world!

What is the most likely reason that other social media sites like Twitter and Instagram were created?
a. Professors at Harvard University made it a class
project.
b. Facebook was extremely popular and other people
thought they could also be successful by designing
social media sites.
c. Facebook was not connecting enough people.
d. Mark Zuckerberg paid people to invent new social
media sites because he wanted lots of competition.

Here, the correct answer is B. Facebook was extremely popular and other people thought they could also be successful by designing social media sites. How do we know this? What are the context clues? Take a look at the first paragraph. What do we know based on this paragraph? Well, one sentence refers to Facebook’s original launch. This suggests that Facebook was one of the first social media sites. In addition, we know that the founder of Facebook has been extremely successful and is worth billions of dollars.

From this we can infer that other people wanted to imitate Facebook’s idea and become just as successful as Mark Zuckerberg.

Let’s go through the other answers. If you chose A, it might be because Facebook started at Harvard University, so you drew the conclusion that all other social media sites were also started at Harvard University. However, there is no mention of class projects, professors, or students designing social media. So there doesn’t seem to be enough support
for choice A. If you chose C, you might have been drawing your own
conclusions based on outside information. Maybe none of your friends are on Facebook, so you made an inference that Facebook didn’t connect enough people, so more sites were invented. Or maybe you think the people who connect on Facebook are too old, so you don’t think Facebook connects enough people your age. This might be true, but remember
inferences should be drawn from the information the author
gives you! If you chose D, you might be using the information that
Mark Zuckerberg is worth over 28 billion dollars. It would
be easy for him to pay others to design new sites, but remember,
you need to use context clues! He is very wealthy, but that statement was giving you information about how successful Facebook was—not suggesting that he paid others to design more sites!

So remember, drawing inferences and conclusions is simply about using the information you are given to make an educated guess. You do this every single day so don’t let this concept scare you. Look for the context clues, make sure they support your claim, and you’ll be able to make accurate inferences and conclusions!

Meaning From Context

Often in reading comprehension questions, you are asked for the definition of a word, which you have to infer from the surrounding text, called “meaning in context.” Here are a few examples with step-by-step solutions, and a few tips and tricks to answering meaning from context questions.

There are literally thousands and thousands of words in the English language. It is impossible for us to know what every single one of them means, but we also don’t have time to Google a definition every time we read a word we don’t  understand! Even the smartest person in the world comes across words they don’t know, but luckily we can use context
clues to help us determine what things actually mean.

Context clues are really just little hints that can help us determine the meaning of words or phrases and honestly, the easiest way to learn how to use context clues is to practice!

Let’s start with a few basic examples.

In some countries many people are not given access to schools, teachers, or books. In these countries, people might be illiterate.

You might not know what the word illiterate means, but let’s use the clues in the sentence to help us. If people are not given access to schools, teachers, or books, what might happen? They probably don’t learn what we learned in school so they might not know some of the things that we learned from our teachers! Illiterate actually means “unable to read
or write.” This makes sense based on the context clues!

Let’s work through another example.

We have so much technology today! So much technology that many people have started using tablets and computers to read ebooks instead of paper
books! In fact, some of these people actually think that reading paper books is archaic!
Let’s look for the context clues. Well, what do we know from this paragraph? We have a lot of technology and sometimes people read ebooks instead of paper books. From this we can draw the conclusion that ebooks are beginning to replace paper books because ebooks are newer and better.
So if ebooks are newer and better, it must mean that paper books are older. Archaic actually means “very old or old fashioned,” which again we determined from the context clues.
Let’s see if you can try a few on your own now.

Cody noticed the strawberries in his refrigerator were old and moldy, so he abstained and threw them away.

What does abstained most likely mean?
a. chose not to consume
b. washed
c. shared
d. cut into pieces

The correct answer here is A. The context clues told you the strawberries were old and moldy and told you that Cody did something and then threw them away. If the strawberries were moldy, and Cody abstained, it makes sense that he didn’t eat them—which is choice A. You may have chosen answer B. If the strawberries were old and moldy, Cody could have washed them. But use ALL of the context clues. After he abstained, he threw them away. Why would Cody wash them and then throw them away?

That doesn’t make sense! In addition, why would he share them if they were old and moldy? Finally, I suppose Cody could have cut them into pieces, but why would he need to do that before throwing them away? It doesn’t make as much sense, so choice A is the correct answer!

Let’s do one more.

Scott had a disdain for Lily ever since she lied to their boss and got him fired.
a. Compassion
b. Hate
c. Remorse
d. Money

The correct answer is B. Scott was fired because Lily lied. Can you imagine if this happened to you? I think you would have some pretty strong feelings just like Scott! It’s simple! By understanding the context, you can determine the meaning of even the hardest of words!

 

Reading Comprehension Strategies and Tips


Reading comprehensions are high scoring part of every competitive examination still accuracy of students is lowest in this part. Today I am going to share some tips and strategies to help you improve your score.

Here are my strategies :-

How to select passages to attempt

As there is lack of time in every competitive exam and it is a fact that you can’t attempt all passages, you need to choose between various passages
. As there is question sets with reading comprehension, your selection makes a big impact on your final marks.

Are you comfortable with the topic

Most important thing before selecting a passage is the topic on which passage is based. Do you love history ? You saw a passage on Aurengzeb. You shouldn’t skip it at any cost. If you love to read about a particular topic, your reading speed as well as accuracy will be high in this topic.

Skip the topics you are unaware of. There are high chances that you will mark wrong answers for this comprehension.

Vocabulary Usage

You can’t build your vocabulary in a week or few days. It is a time consuming process. So before attempting any passage, skim it and find out – Are you comfortable with the topic. If your answer is yes then attempt that passage.

Author’s tone

It’s very important to understand tone of author. It may be optimistic, pessimist, sarcastic, angry or contemplative. If you are able to understand what author is trying to say then there is high probability that you will mark right answers.

Length of passage

Without going into any details, simply prefer smaller passages.

Difficulty level of questions

If you find that questions are beyond the conclusion you found from the passage, simply skip that question, Never try to mark nearest answer. Mark the answer only if you sure about it. Accuracy level of most of the candidates is lowest in this part of every competitive exam.

How to attempt Reading comprehensions

Step 1 – Read the passage quickly as you read an article in a newspaper. Don’t be in hurry. Try to understand author’s tone and subject matter.

Step 2 – Note the flow of ideas in the comprehension. You can remember that in your mind. It’s better to write 2-3 words for each idea.

Step 3. Make a relationship chart of ideas

chart of ideas

Step 4 – Read the questions

Step 5 – Never assume anything related to real life. Find answers from the author’s point of view.

Generally you will find author’s opinion from concluding paragraph.

How to improve your score in Reading comprehensions

Speed reading and practice

You have just 2-3 minutes to read a 1000 words comprehension. If you can’t do this, then you need to work on your reading speed. Try to build a habit of reading ling paragraphs online. This habit will increase your reading speed as well as accuracy.

Skip it !

Yes that’s right

If there are 2 comprehensions and only 8-10 minutes left then it’s a smart decision to attempt only 1 comprehension properly.

Practice

Practice makes a man perfect. More practice will lead to increase in speed as well as accuracy.

9 Expert Tips to answer Reading Comprehension in Bank-PO without Mistakes


In the English Section in Prelims of SBI PO and other Bank-PO Exams, there are 30 questions out of which 10 are expected to be RC based questions. And if you focus on Reading Comprehension (RC) and attempt all 10 questions pertaining to RC, you can easily clear the sectional cut off marks (usually the sectional cut-off is around 33%).

The comprehension passages may on their own be easy but there may be certain technical jargons and terms that are industry specific and difficult to understand. And if you don’t have knowledge and background in Banking and Economics you may face difficulties.

Following are Few Tips shared by Experts to Solve Reading Comprehension:

1.  Quickly Skim Through the Passage

Spend at least 30 seconds to skim through the passage before you read the passage thoroughly or attempt the questions given at end.

 

2.  Practice Reading Comprehensions on the Computer

There is a lot of difference in attempting a Reading Comprehension online and in the paper format. When attempted online, your reading speed might go down as it is difficult to skim through content and also you cannot underline important points and mark different areas in a passage. Your speed will only improve if you practice regularly.

3.  Read the questions first

Before you start reading the passage, go through the questions that need to be answered. This will give you a fair idea about what the passage talks about. Once you start reading the passage, you can start locating the answers to questions.

 

4.  Solve Past Years Question Papers

Doing so will help you to get acquainted with the actual format of the paper and might be lucky to get questions on similar lines.

 

5.  Familiarize Yourself with Specific Terminology

You should get familiar with different terms associated with Economics, Business and Banking. This will lead to general understanding and better awareness of the topics.

You should have knowledge of a few terms like Economics, debit, credit, Microeconomics, Macroeconomics, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI), Cash Reserve Ratio, Non-Performing Assets, Repo Rate, Reverse-Repo Rate, etc.

6.  Make Inferences

Making inferences is an important strategy. When you infer you draw conclusions from what is not exactly said. There is a kind of reasoning which leads to conclusion. While answering the questions the candidate has to read between the lines. Answers are not directly stated but the author usually the candidate puts together the knowledge with the clues to produce questions that point towards a solution. Candidates will face such type of questions in IBPS and SBI Bank PO exams.

 

7.  Categorize Questions as Per Their Nature

Answer questions on vocabulary first. Then move to fact based questions. Sequentially, answer the questions on (crux) of the passage. In order to maximize marks in minimum time, you don’t have to answer questions in the order they appear.

 

8.  Remember, Accuracy is Important

If you find any questions too difficult to reach to conclusion, then simply skip those questions. Mark the answers only if you are sure of the answers and don’t mark the nearest answer in that case. Bank-PO expects you to attempt 100 questions in 60 minutes; this is next to impossible. So try to attempt accurately and do not guess answers.

9.  Read Newspapers

Regularly read newspapers like Economic times, Business Line, The Hindu to understand the nature of different types of passages.  Reading across varied topics helps so read across fields like Economics, Science, Politics etc for being better equipped before the exam. This way you will also get familiarized with different concepts on Business and Banking.

How to increase your Reading Speed


After most of the exams like IBPS, GMAT, GRE, CAT and SAT got online, reading speed became a crucial part in preparation strategy. Today I am going to share amazing skills to speed up your reading speed. Most of the times readers complaints that they could do better if they had more time. You can save lot of time by increasing your reading speed. This would help you not in scoring high in English Language section but also increase your score in all other sections as you will read and understand questions and statements quickly. These techniques will help you build reading skills. So here are the techniques :-

Divide a line into parts

This is my favorite technique. In this technique we divide every line into two or three parts. To try this technique read loudly by dividing each line into three parts. Once you feel that you are comfortable in doing that, divide every line into three parts.

What to learn

Never read word by word rather read by group of words.

Concentrate on First and Last alphabet of a Word

This is my favourite technique. Many friends and followers experienced 60-70% increase in their reading speed and hence their a reasonable impact on their score. I am sure you are understanding what I am saying, try to read this :-

What to learn

Concentrate on first and last character, practising this technique will increase your reading speed manifold.

Never stop anywhere

One of the most common mistake that people commit is they try to find meaning of each word whereas it is not required. While reading a comprehension, you can make out meaning of every word throught the central idea and flow of paragraph.

Improve your Vocabulary and Grammar

The more you understands a language, higher would be your speed. Have you ever noticed your speed while reading a newspaper in your native language. I tested this on more than 20 respondents, average speed was more than 600 words a minute while reading in second language, average speed was less than 250 a minute.

What to learn

Improve your grammar and vocabulary. You don’t need to do anything else, this is not a trick rather this is a scientific fact. I recommend you to buy these two book which I refer frequently

  • Word Power Made Easy
  • English grammar by Murphy

Practice more by reading online Blogs and Newspapers

Practice makes a man perfect. If you start reading newspapers and blogs, you will experience increase in your reading speed as well hold on language.

What to learn

Read newspaper everyday, you may also download newspaper apps on your smartphones. I read Indian Express. I love “The Hindu” but it is not available in my city, else it is my first choice. I won’t give any negative review those silly “AD FIRST” newspapers. Their main goal is to attract people with graphics and stupid news, whereas these newspapers are filled with ads and paid news. These are one of the top newspapers in India.

 

Practice Sets For Reading Comprehension



Finally some good news: The Central government has begun to recognise that women workers need adequate maternity protection. Of course, the new measures announced are still quite limited. The ministry of women and child development has decided to increase maternity leave from the current 12 weeks to 26 weeks and extend this to all women workers in both public and private employment. The ministry of labour is to require all establishments with 30 women workers or 50 total workers to provide crèche [kresh(A hospital where foundlings (infant children of unknown parents) are taken in and cared for)] facilities for their employees, either at the premises or within half a kilometre.
These are definitely welcome measures, apparently a response to low and declining rates of female work participation. India stands out in the world because of shockingly low rates of recognised work participation by women (around 24 per cent) that have even declined over the past decade. This obviously represents a huge economic loss for the country — but it is also a sign of the continuing low status of women and their lack of agency in Indian society.
As it happens, most women in India do indeed work, but they are involved not in paid employment but in unpaid work in their homes or communities. Such work is socially necessary but unsung and unrewarded — everything from cooking and cleaning to looking after the young, the old and the sick, to collecting fuel wood and water for households, to tending gardens and livestock, and so on. Bizarrely during the recent economic boom in India, official data suggests that more women have moved from paid or recognised employment to doing unpaid work in their households.
There are many factors behind this peculiar tendency. The sheer inadequacy of job creation in the economy makes it hard for women to find suitable jobs. Gender gaps in education also work against them. For less skilled women, available paid jobs tend to be physically arduous and pay much lower wages than for men. The double burden of paid work and unpaid work creates extreme time poverty for working women. So when family incomes improve even slightly (as they did in the previous decade when real wage rates were rising — something that is no longer the case) women may be less inclined to try and do both.
And there are other impediments to women working outside the home: Patriarchal attitudes within families and social restriction on mobility; concerns about commuting time and about security at work and during the commute; and the difficulties of managing domestic responsibilities along with the paid jobs, given the unequal division of household work between men and women within families.
So maternity leave for the actual period of childbirth and the immediate aftermath is only one of the many concerns that working women have — though it is in itself a big one. If the government does succeed in making private employers provide increased maternity leave and in providing crèches at or near workplaces, that will certainly be a step towards somewhat easing the double burden that working mothers face. It would put India (at least legally) in a better position than many other countries like the US, though still far behind more enlightened countries in northern and eastern Europe as well as Central Asia. Some countries like Canada and Australia even provide a year of parental leave, which can be shared between parents.

  1. Which of the following can be the suitable title of the passage?
    1) Working or non working Women
    2) Paid or unpaid working women
    3) What works for women at work
    4) Women at work
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: What works for women at work
  2. Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘ peculiar ‘ as used in the passage?
    1) Particular
    2) General
    3) Individual
    4) Intrinsic
    5) Strange

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: General
  3. Which of the following statements is/ are true according to passage?
    1) If government increase maternity leave in jobs then it would put India in a better position than many other countries.
    2) Lack working participation by women obviously represents a huge economic loss for the country.
    3) Recently, official data suggests that more women have moved from paid employment to unpaid work in their households.
    4) All of above
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: All of above
  4. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘ impediments ‘ as used in the passage?
    1) Obstruction
    2) Boost
    3) Help
    4) Promotion
    5) Support

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: Obstruction
  5. Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘ aftermath ‘ as used in the passage?
    1) Remainder
    2) Inception
    3) Issue
    4) Outcome
    5) Payoff

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: Inception
  6. According to the author, why India stands out in the world ?
    1) Because of less skilled women in India.
    2) Inadequacy of job creation in the economy.
    3) Because of shockingly low rates of recognised work participation by women that have even declined over the past decade
    4) Because of Gender gaps in education.
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: Because of shockingly low rates of recognised work participation by women that have even declined over the past decade
  7. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘ Bizarrely ‘ as used in the passage?
    1) Usually
    2) Normally
    3) Generally
    4) Unusually
    5) Commonly

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: Unusually
  8. Which of the following statements is/ are wrong according to the passage?
    A) Maternity leave has been extended 12 weeks to 20 week to all working women in private or public sector banks.
    B) Some countries like Canada and Australia even provide only few month parental leave.
    C) Gender gaps in education also work against for women.
    1) Only A and B
    2) Only A and C
    3) Only B and C
    4) All of these
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: Only A and B
  9. Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word ‘adequate’ as used in the passage?
    1) Inferior
    2) Unequal
    3) Insufficient
    4) Enough
    5) Unfit

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: Enough
  10. According to the author, what are the obstructions to women working outside the home?
    1) The difficulties of managing domestic responsibilities along with the jobs.
    2) Concerns about commuting time and about security at work and during the commute.
    3) Patriarchal attitudes within families and social restriction on mobility.
    4) All of above
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: All of above

Once again, a vigorous monsoon so vital to India’s economic fortunes has left some States in a shambles. From Assam to Karnataka, heavy rainfall in a short span of time has created paralysing floods that have taken a heavy toll of life, wiped out crops and destroyed hard-earned assets. When the waters recede, a familiar cycle of assessment of damage by Central teams, preparation of loss estimates and expensive restoration work such as repairs to river embankments, will follow. In Assam, where 31 deaths have been recorded already, there are projects to strengthen the embankments of the heavily silted Brahmaputra; the Flood Control Department as well as the disaster relief force have well-funded budgets. Yet, the hundreds of crores of rupees periodically spent on flood preparation, relief and mitigation research in the State have not yielded a protocol that reduces the impact of heavy rain. The swollen river invariably dissolves the weak earthen embankments overnight. Now that another furious season is providing fresh insight into the causes, effects and impact of rain and floods in northeastern India and elsewhere, it is time the Centre took a coordinated view in tackling the crisis. To begin with, it has to review the efficacy of the flood forecasts issued by nearly 180 specialised stations now in operation, and the pattern of responses of the 19 States and Union Territories that receive these alerts.
Urban India is no less traumatised by floods, but city governments have not learnt too many lessons from devastation and losses. The scenes of gridlock and frustration in Gurgaon, Bengaluru and Delhi last week travelled around the world, just months after the disaster in Chennai. Can there be a surgical solution to sclerotic urban planning? Bengaluru is the epitome of governmental indifference to wetlands, most of which have been severely encroached upon or polluted. Being able to live with floods in today’s dense cities requires that these lakes be desilted and restored on a war footing. New artificial wetlands may have to be created to compensate for those that have already been built over. The spectacle of flooding and destruction should convince the Environment Ministry that it is retrograde to sanction large real estate projects without an environmental impact assessment. Some real estate companies have been slapped with penalties by the National Green Tribunal for encroaching upon lakes, but urban planning agencies are equally responsible and must also be called to account for tacitly sanctioning the violations. Provision of relief to those affected by the latest floods has to go beyond patronagepolitics, and meet the actual needs of the people, particularly those who have suffered extreme losses.

  1. What according to the passage are well-funded budgets?
    1) state governments
    2) the Flood Control Department as well as the disaster relief force
    3) the urban planning agencies as well as rural planning agencies
    4) the National Green Tribunal
    5) None of the above

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: its option second; the Flood Control Department as well as the disaster relief force
  2. Which among the following is TRUE according to the passage given above?
    1) it has to review the efficacy of the flood forecasts issued by nearly 170 specialised stations now in operation, and the pattern of responses of the 29 States and Union Territories that receive these alerts
    2) the two hundred crores of rupees periodically spent on flood preparation, relief and mitigation research in the State have not yielded a protocol that reduces the impact of heavy rain
    3) Bengaluru is the epitome of governmental indifference to wetlands, most of which have been severely encroached upon or polluted
    4) Both A and B
    5) None of the above

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: its option third; Bengaluru is the epitome of governmental indifference to wetlands, most of which have been severely encroached upon or polluted
  3. Which among the following is FALSE according to the passage given above??
    1) New artificial wetlands may have to be created to compensate for those that have already been built over
    2) Being able to live with floods in today’s dense cities requires that these lakes be desilted and restored on a war footing
    3) the Flood Control Department as well as the disaster relief force have well-funded budgets
    4) None of above
    5) All of the above

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: its option forth which is none of above.
    All given options are correct hence, correct choice will be option forth.
  4. Which of the following is/are the companies have been slapped with penalties by the National Green Tribunal for encroaching upon lakes?
    1) some textile companies
    2) urban planning agencies
    3) some real states
    4) both A and C
    5) All of the above

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: its option third; some real states.
  5. Which of the following would be a suitable title of the passage?
    1) urban planning
    2) urban infrastructure
    3) Return of the great deluge
    4) Bengaluru waterlogging
    5) civic infrastructure

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: its option third ‘Return of the great deluge’ will be appropriate title for given passage.
  6. Which among the following is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word “patronage”?
    1) advocacy
    2) submission
    3) detraction
    4) opposition
    5) antagonism

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: advocacy – public support for or recommendation of a particular cause or policy.
  7. Which among the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word “spectacle”?
    1) exposition
    2) ordinariness
    3) marvel
    4) combined
    5) production

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: ordinariness – a common or average situation, amount
  8. Which among the following is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word “sclerotic”?
    1) healthy
    2) detest
    3) steady
    4) diligent
    5) arthritic

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5)
    Explanation: arthritic – affected by or associated with arthritis.
  9. Which among the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word “swollen”?
    1) amplify
    2) alighted
    3) dazzled
    4) compress
    5) accumulate

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: compress – flatten by pressure; squeeze or press.
  10. Which among the following is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word “shambles”?
    1) disarray
    2) scramble
    3) precipitation
    4) precipitance
    5) surge

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: disarray – a state of disorganization or untidiness.

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follows.

July 15, 2010 turned out to be a historic day, as the Indian rupee got much awaited symbol, just like other leading currencies of the world, viz Dollar, Euro, Pound Sterling and the Yen. The new symbol of rupee is an amalgamation of Devanagari ‘Ra’ and the Roman ‘R’ without the stem. Till now, the rupee was written in various abbreviated forms in different languages.

The new symbol designed by IIT Bombay post-graduate shri D Udaya Kumar was approved by the Union Cabinet on July 15. “It is a big statement on the Indian currency. The symbol would lend a distinctive character and identity to the currency and further highlight the strength and global face of the indian economy,” said Information and Broadcasting minister Smt. Ambika Soni, while briefing the media on the Cabinet decision.

The new symbol will not be printed or embossed on currency notes or coins, but it would be included in the ‘Unicode Standard’ to ensure that it is easily displayed and printed in the electronic and print media.The encoding of the rupee symbol in the Indian standards is estimated to take about six months while encoding in the Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 will take about 18 months to two years. It will also be incorporated in software packages and keyboards for use in India.

On March 5, 2009 the Government announced a contest to create a symbol, which would reflect and capture the Indian ethos and culture. Over 3000 entries were received, which were evaluated by a jury headed by the deputy governor, RBI, which also included experts from three reputed art and design institutes. The Jury selected five entries to the Govt. to take a final decision.

Shri Udaya Kumar’s entry was the ‘Best of Five’. He will get an award of Rs. 2.5 Lakh and more than an incredible fame, as the designer of the rupee symbol. “My design is a perfect blend of Indian and Roman letters— capital ‘R’ and devanagari “Ra” which represents rupiah, to appeal to international and Indian audiences. .. It is based on the tricolour, with two lines at the top and white space in between.”a visibly-happy kumar said.

The genesis of the word ‘rupee’ is in the sanskrit word ‘raupya’ which means silver. Indian Rupee is variously called ‘rupaya’ in Hindi, ‘rupiya’ in Gujarati’, ‘roopayi’ in ‘Telugu’ and ‘kannada’.’rubai’ in Tamil and ‘rupyakam’ in sanskrit. However in Eastern India it is called ‘Taka/Toka’ in Bengali and assamese and ‘tanka’ in Oriya.

India stands among the earliest to issue coin, and a result it has seen a wide range of monetary units throughout its history. There is some historical evidence to show that coins may have been introduced the first time some time between 2500 and 1750 BC.

  1. Who is the Union Information and broadcasting Minister ?
    A) Smt Sushma Swaraj
    B) Smt Meera Kumar
    C) Smt Pratibha Devisingh Patil
    D) Smt Ambika Soni
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option D
  2. What is the Importance of 15 July in the history of Indian rupee?
    A) The new Rupee symbol replaced the old.
    B) The international community approved the Rupee symbol.
    C) The cabinet approved the much-awated Rupee symbol.
    D) Both (1) and (3)
    E) None of these.

    View Answer
      Option C
  3. Which of the following countries has a currency symbol ?
    A) China
    B) France
    C) Singapore
    D) Germany
    E) not mentioned

    View Answer
      Option E
  4. Who has designed the newly approved Rupee symbol?
    A) A teacher posted IIT Bombay
    B) Mr. Udaya Kumar of Maharashtra
    C) Mr D Udaya Kumar a postgraduate
    D) Information and Broadcasting Minister.
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option C
  5. The new design of rupees “₹” finds its origin in
    A) Devanagri
    B) Roman
    C) Devanagri and Sanskrit
    D) devanagri and Roman
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option D
  6. What is the importance of new Rupee symbol?
    A) It highlights the strength of the Indian economy.
    B) Now Indian rupee gets value like Dollar, Pound Sterling, Euro Yen
    C) Now most of the the foreign countries will maintain their foreign exchages reserves in Rupees.
    D) Now it will be a fully convertible currency.
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option A
  7. Where is the genesis of the term ‘rupees’?
    A) It has been derived from Sanskrit word ‘Raupaya’.
    B) It finds its origin in the term ‘Raupaya’ of Hindi.
    C) ‘Rupiyo’ in Gujarati
    D) ‘Roopayi’ in Tamil and Kannada
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option A
  8. What does ‘Raupaya’ mean in Sanskrit?
    A) NGold
    B) Diamond
    C) Silver
    D) Bronze
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option C
  9. What is Rupee called in Oriya?
    A) Taka
    B) Toka
    C) Rupyakam
    D) Tanka
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option D
  10. When was the first coin introduced?
    A) Between 250 and 750 BC
    B) Between 2500 and 1750 AD
    C) Between 250 and 759 AD
    D) Between 2500 and 1750 BC
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option D
  11. When was the process to develop a new rupee symbol initiated?
    A) 15 July 2010
    B) 5 June 2009
    C) 5 March 2009
    D) 31 January 2010
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option C
  12. Which among the following methods did the govt. Adopt to get the new symbol?
    A) All the leading artists were asked to design
    B) A contest was announced for the purpose
    C) The contestants were interviewed
    D) The governor of RBI was asked to decide the process.
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option B
  13. What do the two lines of the esign mean?
    A) They reflect the federal structure of the govt.
    B) They reflect the mixed structure of Indian Economy
    C) They reflect the new liberlised Indian economy
    D) they reflect the true-colour Indian flag
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option D
  14. How many designs were sent to the Govt. For approval?
    A) 3000
    B) 2000
    C) 10 out of 3000
    D) 5 out of more than 3000
    E) None of these

    View Answer
    Option D

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follows.

NOVEMBER 8th was not just the day of Donald Trump’s election. It was also when Indians found out most banknotes would lose all value unless promptly exchanged. Ever since, many have expected their patience in enduring the ensuing chaos to be rewarded in some way. Might scrapped cash unredeemed by presumed tax-dodgers be recycled into a lump-sum payment to each and every citizen? Or would the annual budget, presented on February 1st, be full of giveaways ahead of a string of state elections? In the event, the budget was restrained to the point of dullness. But the government’s closely-watched “economic survey”, released the previous day, hinted at a much bigger giveaway in the works: a universal basic income (UBI) payable to every single Indian. The idea of a cash payment made to citizens irrespective of their wealth is centuries old. It has become newly fashionable in some rich countries, among both left-wing thinkers (who like its redistributive aspects) and their right-wing foes (who think it results in a less meddlesome state). The idea has had its fans in India: a small UBI scheme was launched as a pilot in the state of Madhya Pradesh in 2010.

Its inclusion in the annual survey, a breeding ground for policies that was drafted by the government’s chief economic adviser, Arvind Subramanian, gives a new focus for fans of the measure (and its opponents). A UBI is usually discussed in abstract terms. There is now a proposed amount: 7,620 rupees ($113) a year. Equivalent to less than a month’s pay at the minimum wage in a city, it is well short of what anyone might need to lead a life of leisure. But it would cut absolute poverty from 22% to less than 0.5%. Mr Subramanian also provides an outline of how it would be paid for. Crucially, the money would largely come from recycling funds from around 950 existing welfare schemes, including those that offer subsidised food, water, fertiliser and much else besides. Altogether these add up to roughly the 5% of GDP he thinks his version of UBI would cost. Starting such a programme from scratch would take up around half the central government’s annual budget, such is the pitiful state of direct-tax collection in India.

The pros of UBI are clear: India is keen in theory to help its poor, but not very good at it in practice. Much of its welfare subsidies ends up in the hands of the relatively rich, who are more likely to make use of air-conditioned trains or cooking gas—or able to bribe the bureaucrats in charge of deciding who deserves subsidies. In-kind benefits are pilfered by middlemen who would find it harder to get at payments made to beneficiaries’ bank accounts. Mr Subramanian acknowledges that managing the transition to a new system would be difficult. In much of India, citizens have to travel at least 3km (2 miles) to get to a bank. Digital payments are still a minority pursuit. One advantage of the proliferation of welfare schemes is that if one of them fails to pay out, others might. Another obstacle is that a fair few billionaires would also benefit from a truly universal UBI. Telling an illiterate farmer that a food-in-kind scheme he has used for decades is being scrapped to finance a programme that will put him on par with Mukesh Ambani, a tycoon who lives in a 27-storey house, will not be a vote-winner. In truth, Mr Subramanian’s proposal stops a little short of true universality: for his sums to add up, take-up must be limited to just 75% of Indians. That means either a return to flawed means-testing, or a hope that the better-off will voluntarily opt out.

Implementing a UBI would be easier in India in one important way: getting the money to recipients. Well over 1bn Indians now have biometric identification cards, known as Aadhaar. The system can handle money, usually by diverting incoming payments to a bank account linked to an Aadhar number. A blast of cash to all citizens enrolled in the scheme would be a feasible way to distribute the money—though that would mean everyone got money, including the conspicuously rich. It will take time before 1.3bn Indians receive such a transfer. Keen as Mr Subramanian is, he concludes that UBI is “a powerful idea whose time even if not ripe for implementation is ripe for serious discussion.” For now the government is focused on meeting its long-held 3% deficit target, which it expects to miss by just 0.2 percentage points next year, and on the aftermath of “demonetisation”. But the idea will not go away. It may seem folly in a country home to over a quarter of the world’s truly poor to give people money for nothing. But it would be a swift, efficient way to make it home to far fewer of them.

  1. What is false regarding UBI?
    i. UBI will be directly beneficial to the end customer.
    ii. UBI will be beneficial to poor.
    iii. UBI contributes 5 % of GDP
    A) Only i
    B) Both i and ii
    C) Both i and iii
    D) All of these
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option C
    Explanation:
    Refer to para 1 and 3.
  2. What, according to the passage, is the advantage of possessing an Aadhar?
    A) facilitates distribution of money
    B) Benefits 75% of Indians
    C) End customer will be directly benefitted.
    D) Only A and C
    E) All of these

    View Answer
      Option D
  3. Explain the term “to make it home”:
    A) to get the desired result
    B) to get a home
    C) to be successful
    D) to be satisfied
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option C
    Explanation: 
    to make it somewhere= to be successful in getting there
  4. What, according to the passage, is true about Mr.Subramanian ?
    A) He is the chief secretary of India.
    B) He drafted UBI and explained how it will work.
    C) He acknowledges transition to a new system is easier.
    D) Both B and C
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option B
  5. Write the most appropriate antonym of”pilfered” :
    A) fliched
    B) abstract
    C) returned
    D) fleeced
    E) lifted

    View Answer
      Option C
    Explanation: 
    pilfered = steal things of little value
  6. What are the advantages of UBI?
    A) payable to every indian
    B) would benefit end customer
    C) cost 5% of GDP
    D) All of these
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option D
  7. What is the tone of the passage?
    A) Informative
    B) Optimistic
    C) Anxious
    D) Sad
    E) Amazed

    View Answer
      Option B
    Explanation: 
    Though informative, the author is quite optimistic about UBI. Mr. Subramanian’s remark in the last para and the concluding lines “an efficient way to make it home” defines all
  8. Write the most appropriate synonym of “conspicuously”:
    A) notably
    B) cognitively
    C) blurrily
    D) covertly
    E) gradually

    View Answer
      Option A
    Explanation: 
    conspicuously = clearly visible, attractive
  9. What, according to author, is expected by Indian public?
    A) a miracle after demonetization
    B) a lump-sum payment
    C) giveaways in the upcoming budget
    D) Both B and C
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option D
  10. What is the title of the passage?
    A) India’s welfare schemes
    B) India and UBI
    C) UBI for everyone
    D) Rupees for nothing
    E) Mr. Subramanian and Indian Economy

    View Answer
      Option D
    Explanation: 
    As UBI will provide  free cash to the citizens, hence the title Rupees for nothing.
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