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Reading Comprehension Tricks & Tips 1

Reading Comprehension Tricks & Tips

Reading comprehension (RC) is among the highest section of Banking/Competitive examinations. So what makes it the most favored section in English:

  • Its asked in every paper
  • You don’t need prior knowledge to solve RC questions.
  • It takes time to solve but there is a 80-90% accuracy.
  • Due to its high accuracy and repetition, it acts as a game changer in clearing sectional cut off in english section of IBPS PO/Clerk Exam.

We have prepared a list of few tips and strategies which can be applied to solve reading comprehension questions quickly with high accuracy in your upcoming IBPS PO/Clerk exam.

1. If you have to clear english sectional cutoff without breaking a sweat, attempt all RC questions.

2. However if you less time left and there are more than one Reading Comprehension questions, pick the one based on the following preferences :
a) Which one is smaller : less number of words.
b) Which one is based on a topic of your understanding: If you are a economics graduate,  it makes sense to go for topics related to economy, finance etc and to avoid topics related   to engineering or quantum mechanics. Same applies for graduates from any field. Choose  the topic related to your field of interest.)
c) What is the tone of the author: formal or informal. Identify what the author wants to   convey and can you relate yourself to it.

3. Once you are done selecting the passage, have a quick glance on its content. Don’t read just observe it like a image.

4. Now read the question. Since you had a glance, you will realize that you can quickly discover the answer to the question in the passage.

5. Remember questions and information in the passage is linked. This means first question will have relevance in the first paragraph and so on.

6. For finding the gist (main idea) of passage, read the first and last paragraph of the passage.

7. For answering vocabulary questions of RC, just read the sentence the word is present in and without looking over at the options, think about the context that word is used in. Then check the options and the nearest assumption is your answer.

8. Never use past knowledge about the topic to answer any questions.

9. Improve your reading speed. Read articles in newspaper Novels etc.

10. Avoid extreme answers.

One of the basic requirements in most entrance exams and courses nowadays is competence in English. For this purpose, a lot of entrance exams that students take have a passage or two of English Comprehension to assess their level of proficiency in the language as well as speed. If you are going to appear for such an exam that has comprehension passage in English, and you are not very sure about how to handle it, read on for some tips.

∗ Be prepared for the Exam

  • Reading comprehension passages are usually followed by a number of questions that will assess your ability to understand and critically analyze the information provided, your vocabulary and grammar and, in some cases, how well you write.
  • Since the level of difficulty of these passages differs for each entrance exam, you should look at sample question papers and past papers for the particular exam that you are preparing for.
  • This will give you an idea of the difficulty level as well as the types of passages asked and you can then proceed accordingly.

∗ Build up your vocabulary

  •  This is one of the most important aspects of preparing for comprehension passages.
  • A good vocabulary and grammar is a must if you want to ace these exams.
  • It goes without saying that until and unless you completely understand what the passage is saying, you will not be able to answer the questions following it.
  • And since some comprehension passages can be quite tough, you need good language skills to be able to understand it.
  • Also, a vast vocabulary will come in handy if the passage has antonym and synonym questions following it.
  • So start reading good books, newspapers and put down the new words you learn when you are preparing.

∗  Time Management

  •  A lot depends on how well you time yourself.
  • Make sure, while you prepare for the comprehension passages at home, to keep a watch close at hand and record how long it takes for you to
    • (a) read a passage carefully and
    • (b) complete all the questions that follow it.
  • If you spend too much time on the passage, you may run out of time while answering other questions.

∗  Set a method for preparation

  • In the time leading up to the exam, prepare for comprehension passages by reading a couple of them every day. See how much time it takes for you to go through each one and understand it fully.
  • You might have to read it twice or even thrice in order to understand and comprehend it.
  • Read the questions after that and look for relevant bits in the passage.
  • Alternatively, you could try the ‘bottoms up’ approach where you read the questions first and the passage later, which helps you look for the relevant portions of the text.
  • Either way, preparing beforehand will make you aware of the method that works best for you.

∗  How to tackle different subjects

  • Now the reading comprehension that you get could be related to any subject.
  • But the best part about all comprehension passages is that all the information that you need to answer questions will be contained in the passage itself.
  • All you have to do is read it carefully and glean the relevant bits from the irrelevant ones.
  • Very often, a lot of the content in these passages is information repeated over and over again.


∗ Types of questions

  • The questions that follow the passage can be fact based, or inference based.
  • It could also be vocabulary based or theme based.
  • The last two are the easiest and it is best to attempt these first to ensure marks in your kitty.
  • Then tackle fact based questions as these can directly be picked out of the passage itself.
  • Finally, go for the inference based questions as these will be a little tougher and will need you to apply your mind a little more.

∗ Focus

  • Lastly, it is of utmost importance that you give your fullest attention to the passage at hand.
  • Letting your mind wander while you read will only make it necessary for you to go back to the passage again and again, wasting time in the process.
  • Improving your reading speed and concentration will go a long way in ensuring that you are able to handle the reading comprehension with ease.

Reading is a skill many people take for granted, but the act of reading and properly comprehending a text is a complex and interactive process. It requires several different brain functions to work together and most often requires one to puzzle through multiple layers of context and meaning.

Because reading comprehension is so complicated, we can often find ourselves understanding the most basic interpretation of a text, but missing the emotional core or the “big picture.” Or we might just find our brains spinning with no clue at all as to what a text is attempting to convey.

But luckily for everyone who struggles in English classes, on standardized tests, or in daily life, reading comprehension can be improved upon (and it’s never too late to start!). In this guide, I explain step-by-step how to improve reading comprehension over time and offer tips for boosting your understanding as you read.


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What Is Reading Comprehension?

Reading comprehension is the understanding of what a particular text means and the ideas the author is attempting to convey, both textual and subtextual. In order to read any text, your brain must process not only the literal words of the piece, but also their relationship with one another, the context behind the words, how subtle language and vocabulary usage can impact emotion and meaning behind the text, and how the text comes together as a larger, coherent whole.

For instance, let’s look at the first line from Jane Austen’s novel, Pride and Prejudice:

“It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.”

Now, a completely literal interpretation of the text, just based on word-meaning, would have us believe that ‘all rich men want wives.’ But the context, word choice, and phrasing of the text actually belie that interpretation. By using the phrases “universally acknowledged” and “must be in want of” (emphasis ours), the text is conveying a subtle sarcasm to the words. Instead of it being an actual truth that ‘rich men want wives,’ this one sentence instantly tells us that we’re reading about a society preoccupied with marriage, while also implying that the opening statement is something people in that society may believe, but that isn’t necessarily true.

In just a few short words, Austen conveys several ideas to the reader about one of the main themes of the story, the setting, and what the culture and people are like. And she does so all the while seeming to contradict the literal words of the piece.

Without practice in reading comprehension, nuances like these can become lost. And so it can happen that someone may find themselves reading, but not truly comprehending the full meaning of a text.

As you can see, reading comprehension involves many processes happening in your brain at once, and thus it can be easy for some aspects of a text to get lost in the muddle. But the good news for anyone who struggles is that reading comprehension is a skill just like any other. It must be learned through practice, focus, and diligence, but it absolutely CAN be learned.


Why Reading Comprehension Is Important

Proper reading comprehension can be difficult, so why bother? Even though learning how to properly read and comprehend texts is a complicated process, it is a necessary skill to master, both for work and for pleasure. 

You will need to know how to read and interpret all kinds of different texts—both on the basic, literal level and on a more in-depth level—throughout your schooling, in college, and in the working world (as well as in your recreation time!). If we think about “reading” just as a literal or surface understanding of a piece and “reading comprehension” as the complete understanding, a person can only get by in the world on pure “reading” for so long.

Reading comprehension is essential for many significant aspects of daily life, such as:

  • Reading, understanding, and analyzing literature in your English classes
  • Reading and understanding texts from your other class subjects, such as history, math, or science
  • Doing well on both the written and math sections of the SAT (or all five sections of the ACT)
  • Understanding and engaging with current events presented in written form, such as news reports
  • Properly understanding and responding to any and all other workplace correspondence, such as essays, reports, memos, and analyses
  • Simply taking pleasure in written work on your own leisure time

Just like with any goal or skill, we can master reading comprehension one step at a time.


How to Improve Reading Comprehension: 3 Steps

Because reading comprehension is a skill that improves like any other, you can improve your understanding with practice and a game plan.

Dedicate yourself to engaging in a combination of both “guided” and “relaxed” reading practice for at least two to three hours a week. Guided practice will involve structure and focused attention, like learning new vocabulary words and testing yourself on them, while relaxed practice will involve merely letting yourself read and enjoy reading without pressure for at least one to two hours a week. (Note: if you already read for pleasure, add at least one more hour of pleasure-reading per week.)

By combining reading-for-studying and reading-for-pleasure, you’ll be able to improve your reading skill without relegating reading time to the realm of “work” alone. Reading is a huge part of our daily lives, and improving your comprehension should never come at the cost of depriving yourself of the pleasure of the activity.

So what are some of the first steps for improving your reading comprehension level?


Step 1: Understand and Reevaluate How You’re Currently Reading

Before you can improve your reading comprehension, you must first understand how you’re currently reading and what your limitations are.

Start by selecting excerpts from different texts with which you are unfamiliar—text books, essays, novels, news reports, or any kind of text you feel you particularly struggle to understand—and read them as you would normally. As you read, see if you can notice when your attention, energy, or comprehension of the material begins to flag.

If your comprehension or concentration tends to lag after a period of time, start to slowly build up your stamina. For instance, if you continually lose focus at the 20 minute mark every time you read, acknowledge this and push yourself to slowly increase that time, rather than trying to sit and concentrate on reading for an hour or two at a stretch. Begin by reading for your maximum amount of focused time (in this case, twenty minutes), then give yourself a break. Next time, try for 22 minutes. Once you’ve mastered that, try for 25 and see if you can still maintain focus. If you can, then try for thirty.

If you find that your concentration or comprehension starts to lag again, take a step back on your timing before pushing yourself for more. Improvement comes with time, and it’ll only cause frustration if you try to rush it all at once.

Alternatively, you may find that your issues with reading comprehension have less to do with the time spent reading than with the source material itself. Perhaps you struggle to comprehend the essential elements of a text, the context of a piece, character arcs or motivation, books or textbooks with densely packed information, or material that is heavily symbolic. If this is the case, then be sure to follow the tips below to improve these areas of reading comprehension weakness.

Improving your reading comprehension level takes time and practice, but understanding where your strengths and weaknesses stand now is the first step towards progress.


Step 2: Improve Your Vocabulary

Reading and comprehension rely on a combination of vocabulary, context, and the interaction of words. So you must be able to understand each moving piece before you can understand the text as a whole.

If you struggle to understand specific vocabulary, it’s sometimes possible to pick up meaning through context clues (how the words are used in the sentence or in the passage), but it’s always a good idea to look up the definitions of words with which you aren’t familiar. As you read, make sure to keep a running list of words you don’t readily recognize and make yourself a set of flashcards with the words and their definitions. Dedicate fifteen minutes two or three times a week to and quizzing yourself on your vocab flashcards. (Note: for tips to help you study your vocabulary, check out our guide to improve studying, including the best way to use flash cards (coming soon!).)

In order to retain your vocabulary knowledge, you must practice a combination of practiced memorization (like studying your flashcards) and make a point of using these new words in your verbal and written communication. Guided vocabulary practice like this will give you access to new words and their meanings as well as allow you to properly retain them.


Step 3: Read for Pleasure

The best way to improve your reading comprehension level is through practice. And the best way to practice is to have fun with it!

Make reading a fun activity, at least on occasion, rather than a constant chore. This will motivate you to engage with the text and embrace the activity as part of your daily life (rather than just your study/work life). As you practice and truly engage with your reading material, improvement will come naturally.

Begin by reading texts that are slightly below your age and grade level (especially if reading is frustrating or difficult for you). This will take pressure off of you and allow you to relax and enjoy the story.

Once you feel more comfortable reading and practicing your comprehension strategies (tips in the next section), go ahead and allow yourself to read at whatever reading or age level you feel like. Even if feel that you don’t understand some of the text right now–or even a large portion of it!–if you enjoy yourself and give it your best shot, you’ll find that your reading comprehension levels will improve over time.


Ultimately, reading should be a fun and functional activity. So try to keep your reading exercises balanced between work and pleasure.


5 Reading Comprehension Tips

Improving your vocabulary and increasing the amount of time you spend reading overall will help you to improve your reading comprehension over time, but what do you do to help you to comprehend a particular piece of text?

Here, I’ll walk you through the steps to take as you’re reading so that you can understand the text and improve how you’re reading, when you’re reading.


Tip 1: Stop When You Get Confused and Try to Summarize What You Just Read

As you read, let yourself stop whenever you lose focus or feel confused. Just stop. Now, without re-reading, summarize aloud or in your head what you’ve comprehended so far (before the place where you became confused).

Skim back through the text and compare how you’ve summarized it with what’s written on the page. Do you feel you’ve captured the salient points? Do you feel a little more focused on what’s going on now that you’ve put the material into your own words?

Keep reading with your summation in mind and let yourself stop and repeat the process whenever the piece becomes confusing to you. The more you’re able to re-contextualize the work in your own words, the better you’ll be able to understand it and lock the information in your mind as you keep reading.


Tip 2: If You’re Struggling, Try Reading Aloud

Sometimes, we can form a sort of “mental block” that can halt our reading progress for whatever reason (maybe the sentence looks complex or awkward, maybe you’re tired, maybe you feel intimidated by the word choice, or are simply bored).

Reading these problematic passages aloud can often help circumvent that block and help you to form a visual of what the text is trying to convey.


Tip 3: Re-read (or Skim) Previous Sections of the Text

For the most part, reading is a personal activity that happens entirely in your head. So don’t feel you have to read just like anyone else if “typical” methods don’t work for you. Sometimes it can make the most sense to read (or re-read) a text out of order.

It is often helpful to glance backwards through a piece of text (or even re-read large sections) to remind yourself of any information you need and have forgotten–what happened previously, what a particular word means, who a person was…the list is endless.

Previous sentences, sections, or even whole chapters can provide helpful context clues. Re-reading these passages will help to refresh your memory so that you can better understand and interpret later sections of the text.


Tip 4: Skim or Read Upcoming Sections of the Text

Just like with the previous step, don’t feel that the only way to read and understand a text is to work through it completely linearly. Allow yourself the freedom to take apart the text and put it back together again in whichever way makes the most sense to you.

Sometimes a current confusion in a work will be explained later on in the text, and it can help you to know that explanations are upcoming or even just to read them ahead of time. 

So skip forward or backwards, re-read or read ahead as you need to, take the piece in whatever order you need to in order to make sense of the text. Not everyone thinks linearly, and not everyone best understands texts linearly either.


Tip 5: Discuss the Text With a Friend (Even an Imaginary Friend)

Sometimes discussing what you know so far about a text can help clear up any confusion. If you have a friend who hasn’t read the text in question, then explain it to them in your own words, and discuss where you feel your comprehension is lacking. You’ll find that you’ve probably understood more than you think once you’ve been forced to explain it to someone who’s completely unfamiliar with the piece.

Even if no one else is in the room, trying to teach or discuss what a passage says or means with “someone else” can be extremely beneficial. In fact, software engineers call this technique “rubber duck debugging,” wherein they explain a coding problem to a rubber duck. This forces them to work through a problem aloud, which has proven time and time again to help people solve problems. So if a piece of text has your head spinning from trying to work through it by yourself, start chatting with your nearest friend/pet/rubber duck. You’ll be surprised with how much easier it is to understand a text once you’ve talked it through with someone.

Even if that someone is a duck.




The Take-Aways

Improving reading comprehension takes time and effort, but it can be done. Be patient with yourself, work through your reading comprehension steps, and try not to get frustrated with yourself if you feel your progress is slow or if you feel you’re “falling behind.” You will utilize your reading skills throughout your life, so go at a pace that works for you, and take care to maintain that balance between reading for pure pleasure and reading for dedicated improvement.

As you begin to incorporate more and more reading into your daily life, you’ll find that comprehension will become easier, and reading will become more fun. In every piece of text, there are worlds of meaning to explore, and learning how to uncover them can be the ultimate rewarding journey.


Dear Aspirants

English is considered a monster section by most of the Banking Aspirants. Also it has been found that even after a good quality of preparation, it is difficult to score cent percent.

In this post, we particularly are emphasizing on the Reading Comprehension topic, which constitutes maximum number of questions in any Banking Exam. Subsequently in this post we will analyze the approach, and strategize to score better in this section.

Reading Comprehension is the ability to read text, process it and understand its meaning. In addition, RCs are aimed at testing a candidates Knowledge of two elements i.e. Vocabulary and Text Comprehension.

And it is interesting to note that both these elements play a crucial role in better understanding of the passage i.e. for understanding a text, one must have better knowledge of Vocabulary. But what is more complex and varied out of the above two elements is the Text Comprehension.

The current trend of questions that come in the RC are inference basedi.e. the questions are not direct but one has to infer from the given passage. Also there can be one or more conclusions given in the question which are true/false depending on what is asked in the question.

Now let’s move towards the Approach that one should follow while performing a RC in the exam.

The most common suggestion and approach is first read the entire passage and then answer the question that follows. Firstly let’s discuss this approach in detail.

Try to make notes while solving/ reading RCs. It is crucial for locating the appropriate information and also acts as a mental bookmark, thus helping in better understanding of the topic.

While making notes, one must look towards and identify following things:

i) Subject of the passage – which/what is the precise thing the author, is talking about.

ii) Main idea of the passage – what the author is saying about the subject.

iii) Tone of the author of the passage – which is manner author has adopted in the passage.

As soon as one figure out the above three things and central point of the passage, one will be familiar with the gist [GI – general Idea + S – Structure + T- Tone] of the passage. This will also help you to build a thematic composition and logical sequence of the passage. Thus enable you to answer questions from particular parts of the passage.

But this sole approach is beneficial for the ones who generally read very fast. Then what approach should one follow in a RC, below are the some of the approaches that one must try.

1. Instead of reading the entire passage, read critically the first and last paragraph of the RC. Generally what the author is saying can be identified in the first few lines of the passage, which in case of longer passages becomes roughly 1/3rd of the passage. For the rest passage examine hastily, what the author has said about the subject.

Also for longer passages, try to put down in 10-15 words, for each paragraph, what you feel are the central points of the passage.

2. The next thing in this approach is to identify the structural words that tell you the important Ideas or Transitions in a passage. These structural words play a specific role in a sentence and paragraph. The most common structural words are given below:

These three kinds of words describe three roles that words can play in a paragraph.

For e.g.

Continuity words: The author would support his point of view further.

Contrast words: The author would introduce a contrarian point of view.

Conclusion words: The author would sum up his argument so far.

3. Further try to recognize the words that represent positive and negative role in the passage. These words will let you decide whether the author is for or against the subject. A few examples of such words are given below:

Thus these words help you establish the motive of the author.

4. Whenever a question is asked on a phrase given in the passage, just read the three lines above and below that phrase to have an idea of what is implicit from that phrase.

5. There are around 4-6 questions based on Synonyms and Antonyms, these questions can be answered if you have good vocabulary and if your vocabulary is not good, then read the sentence in which the word is used to get a rough idea of the meaning of the word.

Now let’s discuss how one should attempt RC questions in the Exam. Generally, there are 2 ways in which a RC can be attempted which are given below:

1. PQ Approach (passage first, then the questions)

  • Read the entire passage thoroughly first and then read the questions
  • Skim & Scan through the passage and keep going back and forth with questions and passage
  • Read the first 2 paragraphs, scan all the questions and see what you can answer, then read Para 3 & 4, scan the questions and see what you can answer, then read Para 5& 6!!

2. QP approach (questions first, then the passage)

  • Read all the questions with their answer options first and then the passage
  • Read question 1 with all the options, then go through the entire passage to answer it. Then read question 2, go through the entire passage. Then question 3!
  • Just read all the question stems, without reading the answer options. Then read the passage and try answering the questions by reading them with the options.

After practicing all above strategy and approach, here is a list of tips you must follow while doing a RC.

1. Eliminate and not select: In most cases, elimination of choices work better than selection of choices. Here is an approach to eliminate which is ‘BANE’. Eliminate choices that are too broad, too narrow, that are alien (Strange) and too extreme.

2Never apply your own knowledge to the given passage. Confine your understanding to the given passage only.


Practice Sets For Reading Comprehension

By asking five prominent private hospitals in the national capital to deposit nearly Rs.600 crore to compensate for their failure to treat poor patients, the Delhi government has drawn attention to the social obligation of healthcare providers in the corporate sector as well as the need for timely enforcement of applicable regulations. According to the Kejriwal government, trusts and registered societies to which public land was allotted to establish hospitals were required to earmark a percentage of their medical facilities and services for indigent patients. The administration is now moving against institutions that failed to comply with the provision. As early as in 2007, the Delhi High Court had acted on a public interest litigation to lay down that 10 per cent of inpatient facilities and 25 per cent of outpatient services be provided free of cost to the poor. The effect of non-compliance was the repayment of the allegedly “unwarranted profits” the hospitals had made. The hospitals that have now been fined dispute any failure to treat the required number of indigent patients and plan to challenge the order. While the courts will have the final say on the dispute, the principle of opposing profiteering in the health sector cannot be faulted.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that government accounts for only one-third of India’s healthcare spend — well below what is desirable. As a result, we have a situation in which the private sector accounts for a significant part of healthcare services. Given the low penetration of health insurance, about 86 per cent of expenditure on health comes out of people’s pockets. This strengthens the case for private hospitals to dedicate a part of their services to those who cannot afford treatment. However, there is no national legislation that makes this mandatory. In the case of Delhi, it is enforced as a condition on which land is allotted to private hospitals. Wherever such regulations can be legally enforced, it is best that they are monitored on a real-time basis and rigorously enforced. In the present case, it has taken years to assess the audited accounts of the hospitals and initiate action to recover their profits. Enforcing social obligations of private service providers must go hand in hand with other measures to achieve the real goals of health policy: universal health coverage and protection for all sections against excessive out-of-pocket medical expenditure.

  1. What is The World Health Organisation’s (WHO) estimation regarding government’s expenditure on India’s healthcare?
    1) only one-fourth of India’s healthcare spend
    2)only one-third of India’s healthcare spend
    3) only one-fifth of India’s healthcare spend
    4) only half of India’s healthcare spend
    5) Not mentioned in the passage

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer –  2)
    Explanation: It is clearly stated in the first line of the second paragraph.
  2. Which among the following is TRUE according to the passage given above?
    1) it has taken years to assess the audited accounts of the hospitals and revert their profits.
    2) social obligations of private service providers must go hand in hand with other measures to achieve the real goals of state politics
    3) The Board of directors will be the final decision making authority in the current situation.
    4) Both 1 and 2
    5) None of the above

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5) 
    Explanation:This question calls for careful reading. Courts will have the final say in the current situation. In option 2, it should be health policy and both state politics. For option 1, refer to the statement, ‘It has taken years to assess the audited accounts of the hospitals and initiate action to recover their profits.’
  3. What per cent of expenditure on health is borne by the people themselves?
    1)25 to 75 per cent expenditure
    2) 10 per cent expenditure
    3) About 86 per cent of expenditure
    4) About 90 per cent of expenditure
    5) Not mentioned in the passage

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: It can be easily picked up from the passage, ‘Given the low penetration of health insurance, about 86 per cent of expenditure on health comes out of people’s pockets.’
  4. According to the passage, against whom is the administration now moving?
    1) Against the institutions that failed to comply with the provision
    2) Against the private hospitals
    3) Against the government Hospitals
    4) Both 1 & 3
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: It is stated in the first paragraph of the passage, ‘The administration is now moving against institutions that failed to comply with the provision.’
  5. Why have hospitals planned to challenge the Delhi High Court’s order?
    1) Private hospitals to dedicate a part of their services to those who cannot afford treatment
    2) Hospitals were required to earmark a percentage of their medical facilities and services for indigent patients
    3) The hospitals were fined due to failure to treat the required number of indigent patients
    4) All of the above
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation:It can be inferred from the following statement of the passage, ‘The hospitals that have now been fined dispute any failure to treat the required number of indigent patients and plan to challenge the order.’
  6. Which of the following is the most suitable title for the given passage?
    1) prominent private hospitals in the national capital
    2) The World Health Organisation’s (WHO) estimations
    3) Public land and private treatment
    4) universal health coverage and protection for all sections
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3) 
    Explanation: Public land and private treatment
  7. Which of the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to litigation?
    1) inmate
    2) illegality
    3) contention
    4) lawsuit
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: illegality – the state of being contrary to or forbidden by law, especially criminal law.
  8. Which of the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to outpatient?
    1) prosecution
    2) dispute
    3) doctor
    4) convalescent
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: doctor
  9. Which of the following is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to penetration?
    1) illusion
    2) sufferer
    3) diffusion
    4) conscience
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: diffusion – the spreading of something more widely.
  10. Which of the following is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to obligations?
    1) punching
    2) osmosis
    3) ingress
    4) constraint
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4) 
    Explanation: constraint – a limitation or restriction.

There is little that is surprising about India’s recent refusal to allow Google to launch its Street View service, which gives users a 360-degree view of public spaces. As this newspaper has reported, the proposal was rejected following objections raised by the Defence Ministry. The decision is said to have come in the backdrop of the terror attack on the Pathankot airbase in January, with investigators suspecting that terrorists used Google Maps to study the topography of the targeted area. Barely days after the airbase attack, the Delhi High Court asked the government to examine the issue of sensitive locations such as defence installations and nuclear power plants showing on Google Maps. It isn’t clear if these concerns have been addressed. Street View goes a step further than the maps. It displays panoramic views of public spaces, thanks to images captured by Google’s moving vehicles, adding a layer of depth and reality to the maps. India has hinted that its refusal is not final and that such issues could be resolved once the Geospatial Bill, which seeks to regulate map-creation and sharing, comes into force. But it is unclear whether this will help, given that the proposed legislation is somewhat overenthusiastic about regulation. India isn’t the first country to seem troubled by Street View. Since its launch in 2007 in the U.S., the service has faced roadblocks in many countries. In the U.S., for instance, both the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Defense had concerns over Google capturing images of sensitive locations. In Europe, especially Germany, concerns over loss of privacy took centre stage. The script wasn’t different in Japan.
And yet, Street View is available in all these countries. Solutions were eventually found. Before long, the service figured out a way to blur people’s faces and licence plates automatically before the pictures were made public. In the U.S., Google was asked to remove sensitive information, and its image-capturing cars were ordered to keep off military bases. In Germany, households were given the option of blurring their buildings. In Japan, the height from which the cameras scanned the neighbourhoods was lowered and local governments were notified prior to Google’s photography. Even Israel, which takes internal security very seriously, gave the green signal to Street View five years ago, reportedly making sure Google doesn’t show images in real-time and only photographs public spaces open to all. While there is an obvious tourism angle involved, Google representatives have spoken of Street View’s usefulness in disaster management. All things considered, it might not be in India’s best interests to keep out this technology for long.

Directions (Qs. 1 – 10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.

  1. Why Google’s Street View service proposal was rejected?
    1) because of the come terror attack on the Pathankot airbase suspected that terrorists used Google Maps to study the topography of the targeted area.
    2) it might be in India’s best interests to keep out this technology for long.
    3) Only B
    4) Only A
    5) None of the Above.

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: Only A
  2. Which among the following is false according to the passage given above?
    1) In Europe, especially Germany, concerns over loss of privacy took centre stage.
    2) In Japan, the height from which the cameras scanned the neighbourhoods was lowered and local governments were notified prior to Google’s photography.
    3) only A
    4) Both A and B
    5) Neither A or B

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5)
    Explanation:Neither A or B.
  3. Which among the following is TRUE according to the passage given above?
    1) India isn’t the first country to seem troubled by Street View
    2) the green signal to Street View five years ago, reportedly making sure Google doesn’t show images in real-time and only photographs public spaces open to all
    3) Before long, the service not figured out a way to blur people’s faces and licence plates automatically before the pictures were made public.
    4) Both A and B.
    5) All of the above.

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: Both A and B.
  4. Which of the following would be a suitable title of the passage?
    1) Google street view services
    2) issues of safety
    3) Views to watch
    4) Google’s street view
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: Views to watch
  5. According to the passage which of the following countries to seem troubled by Street View?
    1) Germany
    2) Japan
    3) United States
    4) All of the above
    5) None of these

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: All of the above
  6. Which among the following is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word “panoramic”?
    1) wide-ranging
    2) Barging
    3) panned
    4) comprehensive
    5) scenic

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation: comprehensive – including or dealing with all or nearly all elements or aspects of something.
  7. Which among the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word “topography”?
    1) azure
    2) Hide Out
    3) firmament
    4) heavens
    5) empyrean

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: Hide Out – a hiding place, especially one used by someone who has broken the law.
  8. Which among the following is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word “roadblocks”?
    1) obstruction
    2) opener
    3) prestige
    4) preview
    5) premiere

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation: obstruction – the action of obstructing or the state of being obstructed.
  9. Which among the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word “disaster”?
    1) catastrophe
    2) triumph
    3) casualty
    4) emulate
    5) cataclysm

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 2)
    Explanation: triumph – a great victory or achievement.
  10. Which among the following is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word “backdrop”?
    1) depart
    2) dissipate
    3) scrim
    4) forward
    5) foreground

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation: scrim – be thrifty or parsimonious; economize.


Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follows.

Top politicians of India’s ruling coalition boast that China’ s economic crisis should be viewed as an opportunity for India to capture a bigger global export share in manufacturing, and growing faster. With India beingthe only BRIC nation growing by 7% plus, it is not long efore India will overtake China economically, they argue.

In 2014, China’s GDP at current prices was $10.38 trillion – roughly five times India’s GDP at $2.04 trillion. Even if India grows at Compound Annual Growth rate(CAGR) of 10% (best-case scenario) and China at 3%(worst-case scenario), it won’t be able to overtake China before 2038. Yet, India can take-on China, but not by lindly following the now obsolete export-led growth model that made China the world’s factory.

Why? Because India is not China, and today’s world is quite different from what it was when China embarked on its export-led growth path. India is a multi-party democracy with all kinds of pulls and pressures that mak effective implementation of the Chinese growth model difficult.

Export-led growth strategy – aided by artificially undervalued currency – won’t work when world trade grows at slower rates than world GDP. Each country is relying on currency devaluation to capture a igger slice of the sluggish global demand. Mega trade pacts such as the Trans Pacific Partnership (TTIP) will further deprive India from accessing overseas markets. Moreover, India can’t compete with Least-Developed Countries (LDCs) in low-cost labour—intensive manufacturinf for long. Its labour cost is lower than that in China but far higher than that in other countries such as Bangladesh, Ethiopia or Myanmar. India’s badly conceived trade pacts will kill low-tech manufacturing that depends upon labour cost advantage.

Well, it doesn’t make much difference to India’s growth ambition, as there isn’t much money left in low-tech manufacturing, such as leather footwear or apparel-making. Instead, it’s the pre- and post- manufacturing services that capture maximum value in the global value chain. Pre-manufacturing services comprise Research and Development (R&D) , design and testing. Post- manufacturing services capture value through branding, marketing and retailing.

Creating and building brands is a long-drawn process that India can’t afford either in terms of time or money. Many of India’s key exports such as apparel are India’s low-margin contract manufacturing that doesn’t manke much money brands. A suit being retailed for $250 to its makers in Tirupur. Logistics related inefficiemcies further squeeze margins. Moreover, India also has to deal with manufacturing through robotics and 3D printing that are going to take away the advantage that comes from labour abundance.

India should focus on high-value jobs in pre-manufacturing services such as research, engineering and design by capitalising on its comparative advantage – actual or potential –  given the availability of low-cost technically qualified manpower. The Internet of Things is another big opportunity to tap.

That, in turn, calls for overhauling of the education syste which is focused on rote learning and scoring high marks in exams, and not on questioning and critical thinking – prerequisites for innovation. Further, the government should focus its energy on five or six strategic sectors that have strong backward and forward linkages with other sectors. These setors are automoile, defence, housing and infrastructure, pharmaceuticals, electronics and agro-procesing and retail.

India’s automobile sector depensds on duty protection. Defence production is so shackled that private sector participation is nil. The infrastructure sector is marred by under-bidding and difficulties in getting land and environmental clearances. Housing is a good example of how lack of effective regulation can limit the growth potential of a sector. Unscrupulous builders are taking their customers for a ride without any accountability . That reduces its multiplier effect for India’s overall economic growth.



  1. What is the reason for the plight of Indian apparel manufacturers?A) Their products fail to compete with products on foreign markets.
    B) They don’t own the brands.
    C) They have to pay major portion of their profits to local goons.
    D) They don’t use the latest technology.
    E) None of the above

    View Answer
       Option B
  2. Why does India fail to get the advantage  of labour abundance?
    A) because the labourers are not skilled enough to be engaged iin manufacturing
    B) because the latest technology helps produce cheaper and better products
    C) because there is lack of required infrastructure
    D) because the manufacturers prefer to eploy foreign-trained workers
    E) None of the above

    View Answer
       Option BExplanation:
  3. Which of the following statement doesnot represent the true picture with regard to the economy of India and that of China/
    A) In 2014, India’s GDP was one-fifth that of China.
    B) India won’t be able to overtake China in terms of compound annualgrowth rate (CAGR) before 2038
    C) No BRIC nation other than Inia has registered a 7 % plus growth rate in recent years
    D) India cannot  take on China by blindly folowing following the growth model of China
    E) None of the above

    View Answer
       Option B
  4. Which of the following statements is not true in the context of the passage?
    A) Each country is depending on currency devaluation to capture a bigger slice of the sluggish global demand.
    B) Top politicians of India’sruling coalition claim that India will overtake China economically in  near future.
    C) the infrastructure sector is marred by under-bidding and difficultie in getting environmental clearances.
    D) Only export -led growth strategy can work when world trade  grows at slower rarte than world GDP
    E) None of these

    View Answer
       Option D
  5. Why  can India not overtake China in terms of GDP before 2038?
    A) because India is a developing nation and its relation with neighboring countries is not so good
    B) because India is multi-party democracy with all kinds of pulls and pressures that make effective  implementation of the Chinese growth model difficult
    C) because there is lack of state-of-the-art technology and skilled labour who can produce desired products at cost-effective rate
    A) Only A
    B) Only B
    C) Only C
    D) Only A & B
    E) All A,B & C

    View Answer
       Option B
  6. Which of the following is more valuable in global value chain? Answer in the context of the passage.
    A) cost of production
    B) price fixation and freebies
    C) pre- and post- Manufacturing services
    A) Only A
    B) Only B
    C) Only C
    D) Only A & B
    E) All A, B & C

    View Answer
       Option C
  7. What, according to the author, should India do to accelerate its export growth? Answer in the Context of the passage
    A) it should do away with the old system of rote learning and focus on questioning and critical thinking- prerequisite for innovation
    B) it should focus on high value jobs in premanufacturing services
    C) it should focus on inter-linked sectors such as automobiles defense, housing and infrastructure, pharmaceuticals, electronics and agro-processing
    A) Only A & B
    B) Only B & C
    C) Only A & C
    D) Only B
    E) All A , B  C

    View Answer
       Option E
  8. Which of the following with respect to different strategic sectors is not true in the context of the given passage?
    A) the govt. Doesnot allow private sector to enter in defence production
    B) the lack of effective regulation has limited the growth potential of housing sector
    C) India’s automobile sector depends on duty protection
    D) the greatest problem for infrastructure is over-bidding
    E) None of the above

    View Answer
       Option D
  9.  Choose the word which is most similar in meaning with the word squeeze as used in the passage.
    A) reduce
    B) dissipate
    C) enhance
    D) mobilise
    E) transfer

    View Answer
       Option A
  10. Choose the word which is most similar in meaning with the word obsolete as used in the passage.
    A) in vouge
    B) no longer in use
    C) out dated
    D) archaic
    E) outmoded

    View Answer
    Option A

Directions: Read the following passage and answer the questions that follows.

We are told that the economy is growing and that such growth benefits all of us. However, what you see is not always what you get. Most people are experiencing declining economic security in response to the problems of the global system. Many communities have turned to Local Exchange System(LES) to help regain some control over their economic situations.

Local exchange system come in many forms. They often involve the creation of a local currency, or a system of bartering labour, or trading of agricultural products as a means of supporting the region in which they are traded. Sucha system helps preserve the viability of local economies.

Local currencies alllow communities to deversify their economies, reinvest resources back into their region and reduce dependence on the highly concentrated and unstale gloal economy. Each local currency system serves as an exchsnge bank fr skills and resources that individuals in the community are willing to trade. Whether in the form of paper money, service credits, or other units, a local currency facilitates the exchange of services and resources among the members of a community.

By providing incentives for local trade, communities help their small business an reduce under-employment by providing the jobs within the community. In addition, the local exchange of foods and seeds promotes environmental conservation and community food security. Local food production reduces wasteful transportation and promotes self-reliance and genetic diversity. Each transaction within a local exchange system strengthens the community fabric as neighbors interact and meet one another.

There are over 1000 local exchange programes worldwide – more than 0 local paper currencies in North America and at least 800 Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS) throughout Europe, New Zealand, and Australia. Local Exchange Systems vary and evolve in accordance with the needs and circumstances of the local area. This diversity is critical to the success of the local currencies. For instance, a bank in rural Massachusetts refused to lend a farmer the money needed to make it through the winter. In response, the farmer decided to print his own money Berkshire Farm Preserve Notes. In winter, customer buy the notes for 9 dollars and they may redeem them in the summer for 10 dollars worth of vegetables. The system enabled the community to help a farm family after being abandoned by the centralized monetary system. As the small family farms continue to disappear at an alarming rate, local currencies provide tool for communities to bind together, support their local food growers and maintain their local food suppliers.

Local Exchange Systems are not limited to developed countries. Rural areas o Asia , Latin America and Africa have offered some of the most effective and important programmes, by adopting agriculture-based systems of exchange rather than monetary ones. In order to preserve genetic diversity an economic security, and avoid many dependence on industrial seed saving exchange banks. For example, the village women in Ladakh have begun to collect and exchange rare seeds selected for their abilities to grow in a harsh mountain climate. This exchange system, which is exactly why they are successful vehicles for localisation and sustainability. They promote local economic diversity and regional self-reliance while responding to a region’s specific needs. Local exchange system plays a pivotal role in creating models for sustainable societies . They are an effective educational tool, raising awareness about the global financial system and local economic matters. Local exchange systems also demonstrate that tangible , creative solutions exist and that communities can empower themselves to address global problems.

  1. Which of the following is SAME in meaning as the word ‘limited to’ as used in the passage?A) restricted to B) extending beyiond
    C) validated for
    D) adjusted
    E) custodial

    View Answer
    Option A
  2. Which of the following can be suitable title for the passage?
    A) reasons LES must rule over the regular currency
    B) Methods to escape gobal economic issues
    C) Dependence of Asian countries on LES
    D) Role of LES in Development of communities
    E) LES – A futile exercise

    View Answer
    Option D
  3. Which of the following is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘pivotal’ as used in the passage?
    A) essential
    B) unnourished
    C) healthy
    D) overriding
    E) trivial

    View Answer
    Option E
  4. As mentioned in the passage, there is no set design to initiate local exchange system as:
    i. they tend to work well onlly in selcted countries
    ii.they are reggion specific
    iii.they are too complicated to understand
    A) Only i
    B) Only ii
    C) Both i amnd iii
    D) Both i and ii
    E) Only iii

    View Answer
    Option B
  5. Which of the following is most nearly the opposite meaning of the word ‘bind’ as used in the passsage?
    A) visionless
    B) separate
    C) associate
    D) loosen
    E) reunite

    View Answer
    Option B
  6. Which of the following stateents is TRUE in the context of the passage?
    A) LES works well only in countries whose economies are based primarily on agriculture
    B) LES increases unhealthy competition between communities from different region
    C) LESs encourage communities to become sef-supporting
    D) LESs are restricted to trading with paper money only
    E) None are true

    View Answer
    Option C
  7. As mentioned in the passage, local currencies can prove beneficial for the community as they:
    i. assist in creating job opportunities
    ii.indirectly hlp inconerving the environment
    iii.aid in minimising reliance on global economy
    A) Only i
    B) Only ii
    C) Both i and iii
    D) Both i and ii
    E) Only iii

    View Answer
    Option C
  8. Which of the following is the meaning of the phrase ‘what you see is not what you always get’ as mentioned in the passage with respect to the present economic situation in the country?
    A) Sharing information without hiding facts
    B) Being pessimistic while presenting information
    C) Moodiffying information after taking consent from every stakeholdere
    D) waiting to share positive information
    E) what is presented may not necessarily be true

    View Answer
    Option E
  9. Which of the following is most nearly the OPPOSITE in meaning of the word ‘regain’ as used in the passage?
    A) recover
    B) restart
    C) forfeit
    D) revalue
    E) liberate

    View Answer
    Option C
  10. As mentioned in the passage, the statistics with respect to LES highlight that
    A) very few countries are aware of such programmes.
    B) they face more resistance from developed countries than developing ones.
    C) they are becoming popular among communities across the globe
    D) they lack support of farmers
    E) the gap between the rich and the poor is increasing

    View Answer
    Option C

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