English Quiz- Error Spotting Based On New Pattern For IBPS PO 2017 Exams
Directions (1-10): Five statements are given below, labelled a, b, c, d and e. Among these, four statements are in logical order and form a coherent paragraph/passage. From the given options, choose the option that does not fit into the theme of the passage.
1. (a) The reference was to China, a country that has been courting Pakistan for several years through a number of means including assistance in its nuclear programme.
(b) After the Uri attacks, Pakistan’s special Kashmir envoy Mushahid Hussain Syed declared that the US was a waning power, suggesting that Pakistan was seeking out other allies.
(c) The most important concern relates to the possible conflict in Pakistan between votaries of economic development and supporters of militancy.
(d) This corridor—which includes road, rail and port infrastructure—is expected to allow China to avoid the vulnerable Indian Ocean route currently used to transport oil from the Gulf.
(e) Of late, there has been much talk of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) that stretches from the autonomous region of Xinjiang to the Gwadar port.
2. (a) India recently ratified the Paris Agreement, assuring it a seat at the 55/55 table
(b) ratification by at least 55 countries and accounting for at least 55% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was required for the agreement to come into force
(c) where countries will negotiate the mechanisms and provisions under the agreement.
(d) With the ratification, India has demonstrated leadership in climate negotiations but left some with concerns about signing an agreement without realizing its full implications.
(e) There are certain targets India wants to achieve and to achieve that there is a need to allocate mitigating burden among states and also prioritize adaptation efforts.
3. (a) Corporate Social Responsibility has entered India’s legal corridors.
(b) Given the need for proper legal help for a diverse section of society even the PM, in his address at the Bar Council’s centenary celebrations earlier this year, urged lawyers to take on more pro bono cases.
(c) Top law firms and lawyers are doing pro bono so that they can give back to society.
(d) In India, traditionally, pro bono legal work was carried out by lawyers who had dedicated themselves to helping society.
(e) There are a number of socially aware and generous souls who are increasingly lending their expertise for pro bono work.
4. (a) A look at the historical data on forecasts made by the IMF in its World Economic Outlook (WEO) reports seems to suggest that optimism bias may be the bigger culprit.
(b) The large negative forecast errors in the recession years skewed the historical averages.
(c) Over the past few years, the growth forecasts made by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have displayed one consistent pattern
(d) the forecasts are rosy at the start of the year, then revised downwards towards the end of the year, and the actual estimates of real growth turn out to be even lower.
(e) Has predicting the fate of the global economy become more difficult in a volatile post-crisis world, or does the IMF suffer from an inherent optimism bias?
5. (a) India has 13 of the 20 most polluted cities in the world, according to the World Health Organization.
(b) The government should redouble its efforts to combat climate change, which will naturally slash not just greenhouse-gas emissions but particulates as well.
(c) Every year, more than half a million people are estimated to die prematurely because of air pollution.
(d) While air quality tends to worsen around this time of year as millions of Indians light firecrackers to celebrate the Diwali festival, the problem isn’t limited by season or geography.
(e) This week, air pollution in New Delhi has been truly off the charts: Tiny particulates, which are especially deadly, topped 999 micrograms per cubic meter—40 times what is considered safe and beyond what the scale was designed to measure.
6. (a) We can see that there are some similarities between conformity, compliance, and obedience, but there are also some differences.
(b) Behaving in a way that differs from the expected form of behaviour may lead to disapproval or dislike by others, which is a form of social punishment.
(c) All three indicate the influence of others on an individual’s behaviour.
(d) Obedience is the most direct and explicit form of social influence, whereas compliance is less direct than obedience because someone has requested and thus you comply (here, the probability of refusal is there) .
(e) Conformity is the most indirect form (you are conforming because you do not want to deviate from the norm).
7. (a) Caste may be a prominent and distinguishing factor for ‘easy determination of backwardness’, but the judgment observes that the Supreme Court “has been discouraging the identification of a group as backward solely on the basis of caste” and calls for “new practices, methods and yardsticks” to be continuously evolved.
(b) What’s interesting is the observation that class may be “an identifiable section of society”. It may be both homogenous (a caste group) or heterogeneous (transgenders) .
(c) The use of caste as its definitive yardstick is premised on an understanding that requires the state to redress historical injustice against a social group by offering material entitlements: education and employment in public institutions
(d) In this context, the judgment refers to the identification of the third gender by an earlier decision of the Supreme Court as a “pathfinder”.
(e) The practice of identifying caste as a definitive marker of social backwardness is here understood as premised on seeking to help citizens recover ‘lost grounds’ on account of ‘historical prejudice’.
8. (a) For businesses this new state of mind has put nearly every industry in a corner, vulnerable to what Accenture calls “Big Bang Disruption”.
(b) In a Big Bang disruption, innovation translates to the creation of new product lines that impact markets overnight.
(c) Typically the disrupters are from outside the industry.
(d) Bancassurance banks can only pair up with one principal each for life, non-life, and standalone health, which means insurers that entered the India market late to the game didn’t have access to the banks that already had partnerships.
(e) The industries most at risk to these disruptions are those that sell information-based services that can be delivered digitally.
9. (a) The first issue is lack of sufficient spectrum.
(b) Compared to most other countries, India has made only about half the spectrum available for commercial use.
(c) And that needs to be shared by more than double the number of operators.
(d) Most countries have maximum 3 to 4 operators; India has gone up to 12 a few years ago and seems to be settling for 9 now.
(e) The mobile telecoms infrastructure is today probably the most reliable and always available infrastructure in India.
10. (a) To understand the vehement opposition to 33 per cent women’s reservation in urban local bodies (ULBs) in Nagaland by male-dominated/all-male Naga tribal bodies, it is imperative that all illusions about tribal society being simple are dispelled.
(b) So far, only men are privy to the utilisation and sharing of resources allotted by the Central and state governments, as also available resources of clan and tribe land ownership.
(c) In the case of the Nagas, it is even more multi-faceted for historical and political reasons.
(d) Now, with rapidly changing national and global economic eco-systems, in a patriarchal society with one foot still in the subsistence economy, economic apprehensions have impacted political perspectives.
(e) Opposition to women’s participation in decision-making bodies and processes is centuries-old in Naga society. Our customary laws are deeply rooted in patriarchy.