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Spotting Error Tricks & Tips In Detail

Spotting Error Tricks & Tips In Detail


Students preparing for competitive exams will encounter English Language and Comprehension sections. One of the most important aspects is learning to spot errors and correcting sentences. These Error Spotting and Sentence Correction Grammar Capsules are aimed at helping you learn a little Grammar everyday. Let us start with Error Spotting Capsule 1 which deals with the concept of “No sooner… than”. You can even download Error Spotting Capsule 1 as PDF.

No sooner… than

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Event 1 – 9 : 05 : 00 am – The train departed from the station.
Event 2 – 9 : 05 : 30 am – You reached the station.

No sooner had the train left the station than I reached there.

Rules for “No Sooner… than”

  • ‘No sooner… than’  is used to talk about activities that happen almost simultaneouslyIt is equivalent to the phrase ‘as soon as’:
    As soon as I put the phone down, it rang again = No sooner had I put the phone down than it rang again.
  • ‘No sooner’ is placed on the part of the sentence describing the prior event and ‘than’ is placed on the part describing the latter event.
  • Tenses which can be used for prior event:
    Simple past:  ‘did + subject + verb’
    No sooner did the hero board the plane than the heroine arrived.

    Past perfect: ‘had + subject + verb’
    No sooner had the hero boarded the plane than the heroine arrived.
    Here, the latter event must be in the simple past tense.

    Simple present: ‘do/does + subject + verb’
    No sooner does the hero board the plane than the heroine arrives.
    This is a less formal usage and is not preferred in the competitive exams.

Alternate phrases for “No sooner… than”

  1. Hardly had the train left the station when I reached there.
  2. Scarcely had the train left the station when I reached there.
  3. Barely had the train left the station when I reached there.

Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. No sooner had I started mowing the lawn then it started raining.
  2. No sooner had I finished my studies than I got a good job quickly.
  3. No sooner do the children hear the bell than they stand up.
  4. No sooner she left the house than he had come.
  5. No sooner was she leaving the house he came.

Here are the answers!!

Explanation 1: No sooner had I started mowing the lawn then than it started raining. ‘No sooner’ is always followed by ‘than’.

Explanation 2: No sooner had I finished my studies than I got a good job quickly. ‘No sooner… than’ means as soon as, soon, at once, instantly, suddenly, immediately, quickly, promptly etc. So, whenever ‘no sooner… than’ is used, we must avoid them.

Explanation 3: No error. The sentence can be in past (simple or perfect) tense or simple present tense, though present tense is less commonly used.

Explanation 4: No sooner had she left the house than he had come came. When the sentence is framed using the past perfect tense, the prior event must be in the past perfect tense and the latter event must be said in the simple past tense.

Explanation 5: No sooner was had she leaving left the house he came. Only simple past or past perfect or simple present can be used. STRICTLY NO CONTINUOUS AND FUTURE TENSES!!

English Short Tricks Book ( 1400+ Pages)

Either… or

Image result for either or

The teacher said, “We have both football and volleyball. But, we cannot play both now. Either we can play football, or we can play volleyball; the choice is yours.

Neither… nor

Image result for negate

The teacher said, “We don’t have a chessboard or a carrom board. We can play neither chess nor carrom, now.

 Rules for “Either… or” and “Neither… nor”

  • Subject – verb agreement: The verb must agree with the last noun/pronoun of the subject part.
    – Either Reena or you are going to be the leader.
    – Neither he nor I am going to talk about this.
  • The subjects in plural form are kept closer to the verb (last noun/pronoun) and the verb must agree with them.
    – Neither she nor her parents are coming.
    – Either the teacher or the students are asked about it.
  • More than two options: Usually, we encounter either/or and neither/nor sentences with two choices. But, more than two choices can be given.
    Either Miya or Ram or Saran will be there.
    Neither you will go out nor you will play inside nor you will watch the TV.

 Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. Neither Siya nor Raj or Priya went there.
  2. Either they or she has to do that.
  3. Neither the teacher nor the students were in the classroom this morning.
  4. Either Ram or I are going to clean the floor.
  5. You can either call me or send me a message.

Here are the answers!!!

Explanation 1: Neither Siya nor Raj or nor Priya went there. When more than two options are given, each extra option must be added with a ‘nor’ before it in the case of neither… nor and with an ‘or’ in the case of either… or.

Explanation 2: Either they or she has she or they have to do that. The plural subject must be kept closer to the verb and the verb must agree with that plural subject (because it is the last noun/pronoun of the subject and the verb always agree with the last one).

Explanation 3: No error. The plural subject is kept closer to the verb and the verb agrees with the last noun/pronoun of the subject part.

Explanation 4: Either Ram or I are I am going to clean the floor. ‘Ram or I’ may trick you to assume the subject is plural (both Ram and I are mentioned, two persons, and hence, plural! But NOT!!!). ‘Either Ram or I’ means one of us and hence, the subject is singular. The verb must agree with the last one, here, I.

Explanation 5: No error.

Such as

Ram: I want to go to places like Izmir and Istanbul.

Sam: I want to go to places such as Delhi and Agra.

What is the difference between these two statements?


Ram wants to visit places like Izmir and Istanbul; this does not necessarily mean he wants to go to these places. He wants to visit places which are similar to Izmir and Istanbul.

Sam wants to visit places such as Delhi and Agra; he wants to go to these places and also other places similar to them.

Rules for “Such as”

  • Such as means ‘including’.

  • Use of comma (,): If the meaning of the sentence is conveyed even without ‘such as …’ phrase, then we need to insert a comma before ‘such as’. If the sentence is incomplete by deleting the ‘such as….’ phrase, then we don’t add the comma before it.
    E.g. Dubai is famous for its tall buildings, such as the Burj Khalifa.
    Dubai is famous for its tall buildings, such as the Burj Khalifa.
    E.g. Buildings such as the Burj Khalifa are called skyscrapers.
    Buildings such as the Burj Khalifa are called skyscrapers.

  • Do not use a colon (:): Such as’ is used to introduce examples. A colon can also be used for the same purpose. Thus, “such as:” sounds like “for example for example”.

  • Use of and/or: ‘Such as’ is not always followed by ‘and’.
    E.g. I am advised to have daily a vitamin C-rich fruit, such as an orange or a papaya.
    Here, the speaker is advised to eat daily, a vitamin C-rich fruit. And it could be an orange or it could be a papaya or it could be a kiwifruit or…
    E.g. There are billions of stars in this universe, such as the sun.
    There is no rule that more than one example must be listed while using ‘such as’.

  • Do not use ‘such as’ to compare:
    E.g. She wore a hat such as the ones worn in the Victorian era.
    She wore a hat including the one worn in the Victorian era! So, how many hats were she wearing at that time? And clearly the hat must not have been one from the Victorian era, rather one that just looked like it.

Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. I enjoy playing musical instruments like the piano and the violin.
  2. Countries, such as India are democratic.
  3. Foods such as burgers or pizzas are unhealthy.

Here are the answers!!!

Explanation 1: I enjoy playing musical instruments, like such as the piano and the violin. 
Piano and violin are not similar musical instruments. Clearly, then he must be referring not to a class of instruments but rather the list of instruments. Hence, they must be introduced using ‘such as’. Don’t forget the comma!!

Explanation 2: Countries such as India are democratic. Adding a comma before such as is incorrect as the phrase ‘such as India’ adds to the meaning of the statement. The corrected sentence would then be:
Countries such as India are democratic.

Explanation 3: Foods such as burgers or and pizzas are unhealthy.
The statement means all kinds of junk foods are unhealthy. ‘Or’ gives a choice: either burgers or pizzas are unhealthy. Thus, ‘or’ must be replaced with ‘and’. Note that if we omitted “such as burgers and pizzas” from the statement, then it would be saying that “All foods are unhealthy”. This is incorrect and thus we can say that “such as burgers and pizzas” are integral to the sentence. So we don’t need to add a comma.

Let’s start with an example of a sentence that shows you the use of “would rather… than”.

Eg: “I would not rather go there.”

What’s wrong in this sentence? You’ll be able to identify the error by the end of this article.

‘Would rather’ means like, prefer, etc.
‘I would rather go to the library than stand here’ means the speaker prefers being in the library to standing at that place.

Image result for would rather

Rules for ‘would rather’

  • Coming back to the sentence mentioned in the first part of this article: I would not rather go there.
    The negative always comes on the clause that follows ‘would rather’.
    I would rather not go there.
    Another example, I would rather she did not come to the office.

  • When the subject in both clauses are same, the main verb is in the base form (the way it is listed in a dictionary):
    She would rather smile than cry.
    Here, both clauses have the same subject ‘she’. Mark would rather play golf than football.

  • When the subjects are different,
    Case 1: Present or future tense – the verb is ‘did + base’ form
    I would rather she did come to the office early.
    Case 2: Past tense – the verb is in the past perfect tense
    He would rather you had gone for the trip.

Image result for would rather

 Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. Sammy would rather be gone.
  2. He says that he would not rather come for the next session.
  3. I would rather she did come yesterday.
  4. The judge would rather the victim did not remain silent.
  5. I would rather go to my room to wait here for him to come.

Here are the answers!!!

Explanation 1: Sammy would rather be gone go. Same subject ==> base form.

Explanation 2: He says he would not rather not come for the next session. The original sentence gives an impression that he would not do something else rather will attend the next session. The corrected sentence implies that he prefer not to attend the next session.

Explanation 3: I would rather she did come had come yesterday. Different subject and past tense ==> past perfect form of the verb

Explanation 4: No error.

Explanation 5: I would rather go to my room to than wait here for him to come. ‘Would rather’ is followed by ‘than’.

Given below are these main error types and tricks to arrive at the right answer.

Error #1 Confused preposition: since or for?

Sentence: I have lived here since 10 years… uh… for 10 years??

Related image

  • ‘Since’ is used to indicate a specific point of time such as 1947, May 2016, Monday, Independence, and I went to Berlin.

Example: I have lived here since 1998.

  • ‘For’ is used to indicate the duration or period of time such as 7 years, 2 months, and 3 days.

Example: I have lived here for 18 years.

 

Error #2 Improper tense: since

Sentence: I haven’t heard from him since I went to Syria.

Though we can use Simple Past or Past Perfect in the part following ‘since (here, I went to Syria), the verb in the main clause must always be in Present Perfect.

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Why so? Present Perfect is used to indicate that something happened/started in the past is continuing till now.
I haven’t heard from him means that, he stopped communicating with me at some point in time in the past and he hasn’t talked to me till now.

 

Error #3 Improper tense: for

Case 1: They have spent their evenings at this park for 9 years.
They started this habit in the past and continue till now.

Case 2: They spent their evening at this park for 9 years.
They don’t spend their evening at the park anymore; it’s completely about their past.

Case 3: They are going to Cambodia for 5 weeks.
They haven’t gone yet, it’s their future plan.

Reasoning Short Tricks Book(860+ pages)

Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. I have been living in this city since last several years but have never experienced any discrimination.
  2. Ankit is living here since 2011.
  3. Ram goes to the gym for a couple of hours every day.

Here are the answers!!

Explanation 1: I have been living in this city since last several yearsfor last several years but have never experienced any discrimination.
Here, a period of time is given and thus, ‘since’ cannot be used. [Error #1]

Explanation 2: Ankit is livinghas lived here since 2011.
Since and Present Perfect are best friends!!! ? The speaker wants to tell that Ankit started to live there in 2011 and he is living there now also. Thus, Present Perfect must be used. [Error #2]

Explanation 3: No error. The habit of Ram is being discussed and habits are expressed in Simple Present/Simple Past/used to/would. The presence of for has nothing to do with the tense here.

‘Too’ is used in 3 different cases. Knowing these 3 different uses of ‘too’ will help you learn how to quickly detect errors in questions. Here are the 3 cases:

3 Usage Cases – Too

Case 1: Too means ‘more than what is necessary‘.
Example:-

  • It’s too cold out there.
    Meaning: It is very cold outside and it is unbearable.
  • You’re driving too fast.
    Meaning: You’re driving very fast and it is dangerous. You don’t need to be this fast.

Case 2: Too means ‘also‘.
Example:-

  • too love to go there.
    Meaning: Someone loves to go some place and the speaker also loves to go there.

Image result for i want h2o i want h2o2
(For those who didn’t understand, H2O2 – hydrogen peroxide – a poisonous substance, while H2O is water.)


Case 3: Too is used to indicate something is in excess whichmakes something else impossible.
Example:-

  • It’s too dark to go outside.
    Meaning: It is very dark and going outside is impossible.
  • He is too smart to be deceived.
    Meaning: He is very smart and no one can deceive him easily.

To tackle advanced questions related to error spotting questions based on usage of ‘too’, here are some rules that you need to keep in mind:

Rules for “Too”

  • Do not use ‘too’ to emphasize positive adjectives and adverbs instead use ‘very’.
    The island is toovery beautiful.
    The island is too beautiful!? Unnecessarily beautiful?!

  • Very vs. Too: While very can be used in a positive sense, too is mostly used to indicate that something is more than necessary.
    He drives very fast.
    Here, he drives fast and it may not be dangerous.
    He drives too fast.
    Here, he drives fast and it is not necessary and is dangerous.

  • When used to mean ‘also’: In formal situations, ‘too’ is inserted immediately after the subject, while in informal situations is inserted at the end of the sentence.
    I’ll have H2O too. ?
    You too can join the cause, Mr. Sen.

  • Too… to/for: To indicate the impossibility of something using ‘too’, it must be followed by either ‘to’ or ‘for’.
    It is too late for him to submit the project.
    Here, there is a subject in the clause following ‘too’ and thus ‘for’ is used.It is too late to decide a new theme.
    She is too tired to walk.
    Here, there is no subject specified and ‘to’ is used.

Now that you know the use cases and rules to instantly spot errors in questions based on usage of ‘too’, try this excersise:

Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. It was too cold for go outside.
  2. I am too happy.
  3. I am happy too.
  4. He is too sick so that he cannot be at work.

Here are the answers!!

Explanation 1: It was too cold forto go outside. ‘For’ is used in the clause following ‘too’ when it consists of a subject.

Explanation 2: I am toovery happy. Positive adjectives along with ‘too’ makes no sense.

Explanation 3: No error. Here ‘too’ means ‘also’ and it is an informal situation. Hence, ‘too’ is inserted at the end of the clause.

Explanation 4: He is too sick so that he cannotto be at work. ‘Too’ is followed by ‘to’ or ‘for’ depending upon the presence of the subject in the second clause.

‘Too’ is generally used in these cases:

  1.  While talking about quantities.
  2. To emphasize something.

Let us go through both the uses one-by-one. We will start with understanding the usage of ‘too’ to talk about quality and then move on to understand how ‘too’ can be used to emphasize something.

Using ‘Too’ to Quantify

You must have read or heard the phrases – ‘too much’, ‘too less’, ‘too few’. Do you often get confused between ‘too much’ and ‘too many’? Have you ever wondered what ‘too few’ means? If yes, then here is an explanation for each of these phrases (too + Quantity):

1. Too much 

Too much
(more… more.. more…)

‘Too much’ is followed by an uncountable NOUN.

Error Spotting Capsule 7 in PDF: Too muchToo much work!!

Usage: There is too much oil in this food.

2. Too many

Too many
(more… more.. more…)

‘Too many’ is followed by a countable NOUN.

Error Spotting Capsule 7 in PDF: Too Many
Too much traffic!! Too many cars!!

Usage: There are too many cars on the road.

3. Too few

Too few
(less… less… less…)

‘Too few’ is followed by a countable NOUN.

Error Spotting Capsule 7 in PDF: Too few
Too few books!!

Usage: There are too few books on the shelf, we need to buy more.

4. Too little

Too little
(less… less… less…)

‘Too little’ is followed by an uncountable NOUN.

Error Spotting Capsule 7 in PDF: Too little
Too little water!!

Usage: They had too little knowledge in that field.

Using ‘Too’ to Emphasize

Another usage of ‘too’ is when it is used to intensify an adjective or adverb. For e.g. she is much too young to vote. Here is ‘much too’ the emphasizing phrase and ‘young’ is the adjective.

 1. Much Too

Much too

‘Much too’ is followed by an adverb or an adjective.

Error Spotting Capsule 7 in PDF: Much too
Much too busy!!

Usage: He is much too busy to attend the call. Here, the speaker means that ‘he’ is very busy and cannot attend the call

2. Far too

Far too

‘Far too’ is followed by an adverb or an adjective. ‘Far too’ is stronger than ‘much too’.

Error Spotting Capsule 7 in PDF
Far too busy!!

Usage:  His job makes him far too busy to relax.

Now that you know the use cases and rules to instantly spot errors in questions based on usage of ‘too much’,’much too’, etc. try this exercise:

Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. I had too many food today.
  2. He was too far busy.
  3. There is too little water in the bottle.
  4. There are too many visitors today.
  5. He has too few clothes.

Here are the answers!!

Explanation 1: I had too manymuch food today. Food is an uncountable noun and hence, too much.

Explanation 2: He was too farfar too busy. ‘Too far’ is used along with distance.

Explanation 3: No error. Water is an uncountable noun and hence, ‘too little’ to indicate inadequate quantity and ‘too much’ to indicate ‘it’s more than enough’.

Explanation 4: No error. ‘Visitors’ is a countable noun and hence, too many.

Explanation 5: No error. ‘Clothes’ is a countable noun and hence, too few.

What are Conditional Sentences ?

As the name suggests, ‘conditional sentences’ are the ones that talk about a ‘precondition’ or a ‘constraint’. E.g. If you go eat healthy food, you will never fall sick. Conditional sentences often have ‘if’ in them as they talk about conditions and stipulations.

Error Spotting Capsule 8 – If + ‘would’ or ‘would have’

Statement: “If you studied well, you would pass this time… No, you would have passed this time.”
QuestionWhat do you think should be in the above line? Would or Would have???

To know the answer to the above question, you will need to know the rules which are followed while making conditional sentences. We have given all such rules below.

Conditional Sentences – Grammatical Rules for Structuring

The table below has all the grammatical rules you need to know to follow to make conditional sentences. You can put this table in your study area to look at it from time to time.

If clause

Main clause

 Simple present

If he doesn’t call me

 will/shall/may+V1I will certainly call him
 Simple past

If it rained

 would/should/could/might+V2

It would be fun

 Past perfectIf I had money  would/should/could/might+have+V3

I would have helped you

After memorizing the rules, understand the types, purpose & meaning of each rule given below

Types of conditional sentences

Conditional sentences are of three types based on their purpose

  1. A conditional sentence which indicates a possible condition
  2. A conditional sentence which indicates an improbable condition
  3. A conditional sentence which indicates an impossible condition

1) Possible condition

If you exercise regularly, you can stay fit.

What does the above sentence mean?

  • It talks about something which can certainly happen. If you exercise regularly, you can certainly remain fit. It’s a possible condition.

2) Improbable condition

If you wrote the exam, you would get the first rank.

  • Okay, you didn’t appear for the exam. But if you had written the exam, you could have gotten the first rank.
  • No need to worry. Next time, you can.

An improbable condition talks about something happened in the past which can be done again in the future.

3) Impossible condition

If I had reached the station on time, I would have attended Rima’s wedding.

  • The person didn’t reach the station on time and because of which s/he missed his/her train or bus.
  • It is not possible to attend Rima’s wedding. IMPOSSIBLE!

There are some ‘once in a lifetime’ opportunities. If we miss them, never again we will be able to do them. When we miss such opportunities, we can only describe them using the third if conditional sentence – the impossible condition which comes with a lot of regret and guilt.

Error Spotting Capsule 8 – Using Rules for Each Type

Rules to know…

Case 1 – Verb of the ‘if clause’ is in the ‘be’ form

  • When the verb of the ‘if clause’ is in the ‘be’ form, the verb must be ‘were’ regardless of the subject.
    • If I were a bird, I could fly.
    • If he were here, we could practice for tomorrow.
  • Have you noticed that in the main clause the modal verb used is ‘could’? Why so? What is the tense of the ‘if clause’? Simple past (were). When the ‘if clause’ is in the simple past tense, the verb of the main clause must be in the past tense. (Refer the table given above.)

Case 2 – Double negatives

  • When both the clauses of a conditional sentence are negative, instead of ‘if’ ‘unless’ is used.
    • If he doesn’t tell me, I won’t talk to him (Wrong usage in formal English)
    • Unless he tells me, I will not talk to him. (Correct)

Case 3 – The comma

  • A comma is used to separate the clauses only when the ‘if clause’ comes first.
    • We could attract more tourists if we provided better comfort.
    • If we provided better comfort, we could attract more tourists.

Let’s practice now

Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. If she has the ability, she can solve this problem.
  2. You can ask her, if you have any doubt.
  3. I won’t go there if they don’t invite me.
  4. You could get it if you will come early.

Explanations…!!!

  1. No error. Proper tense: both clauses are in the simple present tense. Proper usage of the comma.
  2. You can ask her, ifher if you have any doubt. Unnecessary comma in a complex sentence.
  3. I won’t go there ifunless they invite me. When both clauses are negative, ‘if’ and ‘not’ in the ‘if clause’ are replaced by ‘unless’.
  4. You could get it if you will comecame early. As the main clause is in the past tense, the ‘if clause’ cannot be in the future tense.

Quantitative aptitude Short Tricks Book (600+ Pages)

Definition of a Relative Pronoun:

A relative pronoun is used to connect a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun: whowhomwhichwhoeverwhomeverwhichever, and that. Sometimes where and when are also used as relative pronouns.
Pronoun Used for
Who People & sometimes pet animals
Which Animals and things
That People, animals & things
Whose For people & animals usually;
sometimes for things in
formal situations possessive
Whom People

Error Spotting Capsule 9 Case 1 – Who Vs. Whom

  1. Who is used to refer to people when the person is the subject of the verb.
    • The woman is my friend. The woman called you.
    • The woman who called you is my friend.
  2. Whom is used to refer to people when the person is the object of the verb.
    • The woman is my friend. You called the woman.
    • The woman whom you called is my friend.

Tip #1 – Substitute ‘he/him’ or ‘she/her’

If it’s either he or she, then it’s who. If it’s him or her, then it’s whom.

  1. The woman is my friend. The woman called you.
    • The woman is my friend. She called you.
    • The woman who called you is my friend.
  2. The woman is my friend. You called the woman.
    • The woman is my friend. You called her.
    • The woman whom you called is my friend.

Error Spotting Capsule 9 Case 2 – Which Vs. That

  1. When the relative pronoun is the object of a preposition, which is used instead of that.
    • This is the house in which I lived when I first came to the United States.
    • The tree under which they had their picnic was the largest and oldest in the park.
  2. In non-identifying relative clauses, which is used instead of that.
    • Water, which is essential for life, must be conserved. Here, the clause ‘which is essential for life’ doesn’t affect the main idea ‘water must be conserved’.
    • The house that/which I bought last year is in Delhi. Here, ‘I bought last year’ helps us to identify about which house is he talking – the one he bought last year. Hence, that and which can be used here.
  3. That is used after superlatives instead of which.
    • This the best apartment that is available.

When is that more appropriate than which?

After the pronouns all, any(thing), every(thing), few, little, many, much, no(thing), none, and some(thing)

  • She had something in her hand that she tried to hide from us.

Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. With who were you talking?
  2. The bill which deals with the land acquisition is passed by Lok Sabha.
  3. Perhaps, this is the best thing that you can do for her.
  4. They told nothing which could help me.

Here are the explanations!

  1. With whowhom were you talking?
    When the relative pronoun indicates the object of the verb, whom is used instead of who. Think about an answer to this question: I was talking to him/her. Thus, the relative pronoun indicates an object of the verb (talk).
  2. No error. Because the clause helps us identify the bill, both that and which can be used.
  3. No error. That is used after superlatives.
  4. They told nothingwhichthat could help me.
    Because that is more appropriate after pronouns like all, any(thing), every(thing), few, little, many, much, no(thing), none, and some(thing)

Conjunctions are the words used to link together two different parts (clauses) of a sentence.

I’m going to Liza’s school.
Her teacher wants to meet me.
I’m going to Liza’s school because her teacher wants to meet me. 

Definition:
Subordinating conjunctions are the words which connect
the main or the independent clause to a subordinate
or the dependent clause.

I'm going to watch a movie as it's my free time.

Here, the clause ‘I’m going to watch a movie‘ is the main clause – stand alone and meaningful.

It’s my free time!’
Did anyone ask you?
Why are you saying this?
What’s the relevance of saying this?

This part is not so independent as the main clause and we need additional information to understand the meaning (situation, scene, complete picture, whatever you love to call it).

Thus, a subordinate conjunction like as connects an otherwise non-meaningful clause to a meaningful clause.

United we stand, divided the subordinate clause will fall!

 

Here are some of the subordinate conjunctions:

Conjunction Used for
after After coming from the office,
she went to meet her friend.
as I couldn’t go there as I had a meeting.
as long as/
as soon as
Let us be honest as long as the life lasts.He rushed to the hospital as soon
as he heard the news.
because I’m everything I am because
you loved me.
before Before you leave, please close the windows.
by the time By the time he reached there,
the show was finished.
even if Even if I got it for free, I won’t take it.‘Even if’ is used in a
supposition or hypothesis.
It refers to an imaginary or unreal situation.
every time Every time I go there, his dog barks at me.
if I will take my umbrella if it rains.‘If’ indicates an emergency preparation.
You should do an action after something
happens or might happen.
in case I will take my umbrella in case it rains.‘In case’ indicates a precautionary action.
You should do an action before something
happens or might happen.
lest They feared to spare him lest he should
report the matter to the king.
now that Now that Angie’s English has improved,
she feels more confident at work.
once Once I finish this, I will go to sleep.
since He couldn’t deliver the parcel since no
one was there to answer the door.
so that I woke up early in the morning so that
I could finish the assignment.
than He’s taller than I am.
though / although
/ even though
Though they liked it, they didn’t buy it.
till Let’s wait here till the rain stops.
unless They don’t come unless you invite them.
until No one left the room until the talk ended.
when When I was young, we had only a radio.
where Where you find mines,  put up a flag.
whereas African elephants have up to 21 pairs of
ribs whereas
Asian elephants have a maximum of 20 pairs.
whether (or not) She asked whether I wanted to
go there (or not).
while Lets watch some T.V. while
he prepares dinner.
wherever Wherever you go, I will be there.

Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. Please return your registration form until you leave the room.
  2. I’m not sure if I can meet Hari. When I meet him, I will convey your message.
  3. Although she has enough money, she can buy it.

Here are the answers!!

  1. Please return your registration form untilbefore you leave the room.
    We can’t use until or till to mean ‘in advance of’ and we use before.
  2. I’m not sure if I can meet Hari. WhenIf I meet him, I will convey your message.
    We use when to refer to a future situation or condition that we are certain of, whereas we use if to introduce a possible or unreal situation.
  3. AlthoughSince / As she has enough money, she can buy it.
    Although means ‘in spite of’.

‘What’ as Relative Pronoun

Note → ‘What’ as a relative pronoun is used with ideas and things.

Examples:

  1. She said thisIt made me cry.
    What she said made me cry.
  2. You want something. We can’t give you that.
    We can’t give you what you want.

In the first example, “What she said made me cry”, what indicates the idea she conveyed through words. In the second example, “We can’t give you what you want”, what indicates a thing, maybe a pen, cash or some favor.

When conjunctions can’t be used to
join two sentences, we use ‘What’.

‘Where’, ‘When’ & ‘Why’ as Relative Pronoun

There is no place for ‘where’, ‘when’ and ‘why’ as relative pronouns in the formal English though we often use them in informal situations which almost make us believe they are formal relative pronouns. But, they are not!

Case #1) ‘Where’ as a relative pronoun – Places

Informal: This is the place where I met him for the first time.
Formal: This is the place at which I met him for the first time.

Informal: The Eastern Himalaya mostly consists of evergreen forests where there is no seasonal loss of leaves.
Formal: The Eastern Himalaya mostly consists of evergreen forests in which there is no seasonal loss of leaves.

Case #2) ‘When’ as a relative pronoun – Times

Informal: The day when I joined my office in Delhi was awesome.
Formal: The day on which I joined my office in Delhi was awesome.

Case #3) ‘Why’ as a relative pronoun – ‘Reasons’

Informal: Do you know the reason why she quit the job?
Formal: Do you know the reason for which she quit the job?

Caution!!!

What happened to her that she left the job?
AND NOT: What happened to her why she left the job?

Never replace “that” with “why”

 

Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. I can’t give which you want.
  2. This is the place at which Picasso lived.
  3. The day in which I went to see Jane…

Here are the explanations!

    1. I can’t give which what you want.
      Here, the complete meaning is ‘I can’t give you the thing that you want’. 
    2. This is the place atin which Picasso lived.
      At, as a preposition of place, is usually used to talk about the position of someone or something inside small and unimportant places. This is the place of a great artist – it’s important.
    3. The day inon which I went to see Jane…

Subordinating Conjunctions

we learned that subordinating conjunctions are the words which connect the main or the independent clause to a subordinate or the dependent clause. Today we will deal with ‘this or that‘ cases of subordinating conjunctions.

United we stand, divided the subordinate clause will fall!

Case #1 Conjunctions or subordinating conjunctions

“Are the clauses of equal importance?”

Subordinating conjunctions are used to join the clauses of unequal importance – one clause is more important than the other.
  1. I got dressed and had my breakfast.
    In this sentence, ‘I had dressed’ and ‘I had my breakfast’ have equal importance as they are joined using ‘and’.
  2. I was walking back to home when Merin met with an accident.
    ‘What were you doing then?’
    ‘I was walking back to home.’
    ‘I was walking home’ is important here as it indicates what the speaker was doing when Merin met with an accident.
  3. Merin met with an accident when I was walking back to home.
    ‘Do you what happened when I was walking back to home?’
    ‘What happened?’
    ‘Merin met with an accident.’
    Here, ‘Merin met with an accident’ is the news and hence, the important clause.

Case #2 While or when

“Longer or shorter events?”

We use when to introduce a single completed event that takes place in the middle of a longer activity or event.We use while to talk about two longer events or activities happening at the same time.
  1. I was almost there when the phone rang.
    Here, the speaker didn’t finish his action of traveling and the phone rang (a single, short event).
  2. I was reading a book while waiting for him to come.
    Reading is a long, incomplete process here and so is the wait. Two longer, incomplete events happening simultaneously (at the same time).

Spot the error in the following sentences

  1. He was shaving, and the earthquake destroyed the city.
  2. He was listening to the music while I reached home.
  3. I was going home when I saw him.

Here are the explanations!

  1. While he was shaving, and the earthquake destroyed the city. The occurrence of the earthquake is of greater importance, it is the news. Remember that we introduce subordinate conjunction in front of the clause of lesser importance and that’s why ‘while’ is inserted at the beginning. So, the options will be like: a) While he was shaving, the earthquake destroyed the city. b) He was shaving while the earthquake destroyed the city. Be careful!
  2. He was listening to the music whilewhen I reached home. ‘He was listening to the music’ – a longer, incomplete event. ‘I reached home’ – a single completed event. And, hence, the conjunction must be ‘when’. ?
  3. No error.

Spelling Rules

Learning how to spot spellings errors in sentences can drastically improve your score in the English section of various Bank and SSC exams. Here are some spelling rules and different cases which can help you become a good speller. Read these rules one by one and download them as PDF to revise and keep a track of your revision!

Case #1 Plurals of Nouns based on their Suffix

Rule 1

A noun, usually forms its plural by adding ‘-s’ at the end.
E.g. dog – dogs, pigeon – pigeons

Rule 2

Most nouns ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ change into ‘-ves’.
E.g. leaf – leaves, knife – knives
Exceptions: staffs, cliffs, chiefs, roofs, safes

Rule 3

Nouns ending in ‘y’ add ‘s’ if the ‘y’ follows a vowel.
E.g. toy – toys, ray – rays

Rule 4

Nouns ending in ‘y’ change the ‘y’ to ‘-ies’ if the ‘y’ follows a consonant.
E.g. baby – babies, story – stories

Rule 5

Most nouns ending in ‘o’ form their plurals by adding ‘-es’.
E.g. tornado – tornadoes, echo – echoes
Exceptions: pianos, solos, bamboos

Rule 6

Nouns ending in ‘s’, ‘ss’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘x’, or ‘z’ add ‘es’ to form plurals.
E.g. gas – gases, grass – grasses, branch – branches

Case #2: The ‘EE’ Sound – Receive or Receive?!!

Rule 7

– When the sound is ee and alphabets used are ‘i’and ‘e’:

1) ‘e’ comes first, when they come after ‘c’
E.g. deceive, receive

2) ‘i’ comes first in all other cases
E.g. pie, grief

Exceptions: seize, weird

Case #3: ALL & FULL

Rule 8

– When the words ‘all’ and ‘full’ are used to make up longer words, one ‘l’ is dropped.

E.g. always, cheerful

Case #4: Adding ‘DIS’ and ‘MIS’

Rule 9

– When adding ‘dis’ and ‘mis’ to other words, the ‘s’ is always kept, even if the other word begins with an ‘s’.

E.g. Misspell

Now that you know all the rules, let’s try a few exercises.

Exercises & Solutions

While solving these questions, make sure you do not look at the explanations given below:

Exercises

  1. Find the misspelt word – skilfull, alright, piece
  2. Which is the correct plural form of chief – chieves, chiefs, chief, chiefs
  3. Choose the correctly spelt word – addresses, addressess, addreses
  4. Find the misspelt word – misstate, mistake, misuse, misspend

 

Here are the explanations!

  1. Skilfull – According to rule 8, when the words ‘all’ and ‘full’ are used to make up longer words, one ‘l’ is dropped. Skilful is the correct spelling.
  2. Chiefs – Although most nouns ending in ‘f’ or fe change ‘f’ or ‘fe’ to ‘ves’, there are certain exceptions to this rule (refer rule 2)
  3. Addresses – Nouns ending in ‘s’, ‘ss’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’, ‘x’, or ‘z’ add ‘es’ to form plurals.
  4. Mistate – When adding ‘dis’ and ‘mis’ to other words, the ‘s’ is always kept, even if the other word begins with an ‘s’. Misstate is the correct spelling.

English Short Tricks Book ( 1400+ Pages)

What’s the Confusion between Its and It’s?

The confusion arises in the fact that nouns take an apostrophe ‘s’ after it when used in possessive form.

E.g. Sheela’s children were disobedient and spoilt.

E.g. The book’s pages contained many mysteries.

So you would expect that pronouns like ‘it’ would do the same. But they do not. In fact, no pronoun in its possessive form, will use an apostrophe.

What is Its?

It is the possessive form of the pronoun ‘it’. The possessive form is used to indicate possession or ownership.

E.g. The dog was sleeping. It cocked up its ears on hearing the sound.

Here, ‘its’ is used indicate that the ears belong to the dog.

What is It’s?

It is nothing but a contraction (short form) for ‘it is’ or ‘it has’.

E.g. It’s a beautiful piece of literature.

Here, it is the contraction for ‘it is’.

E.g. It’s been increasing in intensity since the morning.

Here, it is the abbreviation for it has.

A Trick to Remember Its and It’s

When you aren’t sure whether it should Its or It’s, simply use the following trick. The best way to figure out the difference is to replace the blank with ‘it is’ or ‘it has’. If grammatically and contextually they make sense, then the answer is It’s. If not, it must be denoting possession and the answer is Its. Though the difference is very simple, sometimes we use these simple words wrongly.

TALKING DEGREES OF COMPARISON

Some of us friends had gathered to catch up on each other’s lives. We were discussing our jobs when one of my friends compared her current work colleagues to her previous ones.

She said, “The people in my new office are way more friendlier than the people at my old office.”

One of my other friends chipped in, “Are they offering you a good salary than before?”

She replied, “Yes. They definitely are. The best part is I learn to use my time more effectively than at my previous work.

This simple conversation can be used to identify the errors people are prone to make when they use degrees of comparison. The degrees of comparison are easy to identify really. When we are talking about only one thing, it is the positive degree. Comparing between two things uses the comparative degree. When you want to compare one thing with all other things in its class and call it the best or the worst of the lot, then you use superlative degree.

SPOTTING EXTRA REDUNDANCIES!

Let us pinpoint the errors in the conversation given above.

Even though the first sentence seems correct, it is not. Since she is comparing two things, she has used the comparative degree of comparison; but she has incorrectly used ‘more’. The adjective ‘friendlier’ is already in the comparative form so it doesn’t need an additional ‘more’ before it.

‘More’ and ‘most’ is used in the comparative and superlative degree of comparison respectively when the rule of applying ‘er’ or ‘ier’ and ‘est’ or ‘iest’ does not apply.

Usually, when the word is too long (three or more syllables), the word takes ‘more’ and ‘most’ in its comparative and superlative degrees. Then do not add ‘er’, ‘ier’, ‘est’ or ‘iest’ at its end.

Eg: The palace we visited at Udaipur was more splendid than this palace.

IRREGULAR FORMS

In the second sentence, ‘as before’ implies there is a comparison between two timeframes – now and before. Thus, it should have been a ‘better salary’. Why not ‘gooder’? Or ‘more good’?

Because, some words follow an irregular pattern.

Here are some examples:

1. Good- Better- Best
2. Many/Much- More- Most
3. Bad/Ill- Worse- Worst
4. Far- Farther- Farthest (talking about distance)
5. Far- Further- Furthest (talking about achievements)
6. Old- Elder- Eldest (talking about blood relatives)
7. Old- Older- Oldest (talking about others)
8. Little- Less- Least
9. Late- Later- Latest (talking about an event)
10. Late- Latter- Last (talking about a person or object)

USING WITH ADVERBS – IT’S OKAY!

In the third sentence, the thing to be observed is that even though ‘effectively’ is an adverb it is being used in the comparative degree.

The aim is to indicate that the degree of comparison can be used for adverbs as well.

SWITCHING DEGREES

We can interchange the degrees of comparison by keeping the meaning of the sentence same.

Let us take the example of the previous sentence:

The palace we visited at Udaipur was more splendid than this palace.

Originally in comparative degree, let us change it to the positive degree.

This palace is not as splendid as the palace we visited at Udaipur. (Positive degree)

Another example:

This is the easiest way to learn degrees of comparison. (Superlative degree)

There is no other way as easy as this one to learn degrees of comparison. (Positive degree)

This way is easier than any other way to learn degrees of comparison. (Comparative degree)

The only way to master correct usage of degrees of comparison is reading and practising converting sentences from one degree to another. This way you can spot errors more easily in degrees of comparison.

When to Use Present Tenses – Simple, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous

Charu was trying to understand tenses. She was just starting to understand the different Present tenses – Simple Present, Present Continuous, Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous tenses. She met Shashi, with whom she had this conversation. And lo and behold! Tenses suddenly started making sense.

Charu: Hi! My name is Charu. Who are you?

Shashi: Hi Charu! I am Shashikant. But people usually call me Shashi.

Notice how Charu and Shashi are introducing themselves. They tell each other their names. Names are facts – things that we can definitely find out if they are true or not i.e. either they are  true or false. There is no other way of looking at it. Notice how when stating facts such as their names, they use the simple present tense. Also, Shashi mentions that people usually know him as Shashi and not Shashikant. These kinds of habitual (repeated) actions are also conveyed through the simple present tense. ‘Is’, ‘are’, ‘am’, ‘call’ are all verbs in the simple present tense.

Charu: It is nice to meet you, Shashi. What do you do?

Shashi: Right now I am working on a project for the government. I have completed a Bachelors in Chemistry just this April.

Notice how Shashi is talking about what he is doing continuously or regularly these days. Such actions are used in the present continuous tense. The next sentence states his action which he completed just recently, and is valid even now at present. Such actions use the present perfect tense.

Charu: That is wonderful! Don’t you want to get a Master’s degree?

Shashi: Yes, I do. I have been studying every night for the entrance exams.

It looks like Shashi started the process of studying at some point in the past and it continues even now. Here the process and result are both important. So he uses the present perfect continuous tense.  

Rules to Understand Gerunds with Examples

A gerund is constituted by verb + ‘ing’. Every gerund without exception ends in ‘ing’. It is however difficult to identify a gerund since it is often confused with present participles and other words ending in ‘ing’.  The distinction lies in their use. Present participles are used as adjectives whereas gerunds as used as nouns. Here are 11 rules to understand gerunds with examples.

This short passage is a solution for all your confusions regarding gerunds. Some words may be highlighted for your attention.

PASSAGE:

Reading helps you improve your vocabulary and grammar. One of the crucial aspects of grammar is understanding gerunds. It is one topic students find confusingInitially, you will have problems with putting gerunds in a sentence.  However, you should never give up trying. Working hard and long is, in fact, a tremendously rewarding activity. One must get used to using gerunds and participles comfortably. So put on your running shoes and go ahead with your preparation. It is no use learning if you don’t apply the rules. So keep practising. Be committed to discovering new things.

 

DISCUSSION:

Now that you have read the passage, let us discuss the highlighted words. The common factor among these words is that they end in ‘ing’. But are all of these gerunds? And have they been used similarly in all the sentences. Read on to find out.

  1. Reading is the subject of the sentence and it is a gerund. Gerunds, as nouns, can also be subjects of a sentence. E.g. Smoking is prohibited here.
  2. Understanding is also a gerund. It works here as the complement of the verb ‘to be’. This is different from the continuous verb. How? Here,the verb is clearly ‘is’, whereas ‘understanding’ is not part of this verb. It shows a different action. Eg: One of his duties is cleaning the room.
  3. Confusing ends in ‘ing’. But it is not a gerund. It is a participle because it acts as the adjective for the noun ‘topic’. E.g. Singing birds do not sit on branches. Here, ‘singing’ modifies the noun ‘birds’.
  4. Putting is a gerund and is used after the preposition ‘with’. Very often, when a verb is used after a preposition, it is in the ‘ing’ form. E.g. In keeping with the laws, the judge forgot all about justice. Here ‘in’ is the preposition.
  5. Trying here is a gerund after a phrasal verbPhrasal verbs composed of verb + preposition/adverb such as ‘give up’ and ‘put off’ are followed by gerunds or gerund phrases. Eg: I put off going to the doctor.
  6. Working hard and long is a gerund phrase. It begins with the gerund ‘working’ and functions as a noun.
  7. Some phrasal verbs include the preposition ‘to’. In that case, they are always followed by gerunds. Here, using is the gerund after the phrasal verb ‘used to’. ‘To’ is not a part of the verb but rather a part of the phrase and acts as a preposition.
  8. Running has been used here as a gerund in a compound noun. A compound noun is a noun formed by joining two words. It is clear that the meaning is that of a noun, not of a continuous verb. E.g. The water in the swimming pool is dirty.
  9. Learning: A gerund is compulsorily used after expressions like ‘can’t help’, ’no use’ etc. E.g. She couldn’t help falling in love with him.
  10. Practising here is the object of the verb ‘keep’. E.g. I enjoy singing.
  11. Even though ‘to discovering’ may look wrong because you learnt about infinitives, this is correct. Some words like ‘committed’ and ‘inclined’ always take the preposition ‘to’ after it. Then rule 4 applies. The verb after the preposition ‘to’ takes the gerund form because the ‘to’ is not part of the verb itself. Otherwise infinitives never take the ‘ing’ form.

General Tips for Tenses in English Grammar

Tense of a verb indicates the time period during which an action or event has occurred. Tenses constitute a major part of our written and spoken English and is key in understanding conversational English. Quite often, we end up making grave errors where these tenses are concerned. Here are a few general rules of tenses.

There are three major tenses and theses are further subdivided. They are:

1. Past

  • Simple past (Verb+ed)

This tense can be used to denote a single act in the past or a habitual action in the past. It is formed using the past participle form of the root verb. This usually involves adding ‘ed’ to the end of the root verb.

E.g.: Sachin scored a century in the last match.

E.g.: He studied many hours a day.

However there are certain exceptions to the rule of forming past tenses by adding ed to the verb. These have irregular past participle forms.

E.g.: Blew, came, drove

  • Past perfect(Had/Have+Past participle):

This tense describes an action which has definitely ended in the past. It denotes an action completed at some point in the past before another action started. It generally compares two actions that took place in different time periods.

E.g.: I had completed my assignment way before its deadline (arrived).
E.g.: The rain had stopped when we came out.

  • Past continuous(Was/Were+Present Participle):

This tense is used to describe an action that went on for some time in the past. This tense is usually used when the action concerned was in progress during another action also in the past.

E.g.: I wasplaying the guitar when Lakshmi walked into my room.

  • Past perfect continuous(Had/Have been+Present participle):

This tense is indicative of actions that began at a particular point of time in the past and continued for a specific length of time up to another moment in the past.

E.g.: I hadbeen practising Mathematics since ten in the morning.

2. Present

  • Simple present(Verb+s/es):

This tense describes universal truths, regular actions and habits which occur daily or at particular intervals of times.

E.g.: The Sun rises in the East.

  • Present perfect(Has/have+Past participle):

It indicates an action that has just been completed. It is also used to indicate a past action as continuing to the present moment.
E.g.: He has solved the sum.
E.g.: We have lived here for ten years.

  • Present continuous(Am/is/are+Present participle):

This tense is used to describe an action that is happening right now, at this very moment. It may be a short-term or a long-term action.

E.g.; The girls are getting ready for their performance.

  • Present perfect continuous (Has/have+been+Present participle):

It describes an action which began at a particular point of time in the past and has continued till now.

E.g.: I have been studying for my examinations for over a month.

3. Future

  • Simple future(Will+Verb/Am/is/are+going to+verb):

This tense describes an action that is going to happen in the future.

E.g.: Reeta is going to visit her relatives next month.

E.g.: I will call him tomorrow.

  • Future perfect (Will have+Past participle):

This tense compares two actions and describes an action that will take place before something else in the future.

E.g.: By tomorrow evening, I will havecompleted my project.

  • Future continuous(Will be+Present participle):

It describes a continuous action in the future or two actions occurring simultaneously in the future.

E.g.: Next year I will be applying for entrance to colleges.
E.g.: Tomorrow, I will be going to the university to get my certificates.

  • Future perfect continuous (Will have been+Present participle):

This is rarely used in actual practice. It is used either to show a period of time before something will occur in the future or to establish a cause and effect relationship.

E.g. Derek will be exhausted by the time he makes his million because he will have been managing two companies by himself for over three years.

In each case above, the same rule applies to each sub-type, whether the sentence be affirmative, negative or interrogative. Examples-

  • Sheila goes for a jog daily. (Affirmative)
  • Sheila does not go for a jog daily. (Negative)
  • Does Sheila go for a jog daily? (Interrogative)

For a general sentence, this is how the conversion will take place:

  • Yash ate an ice-cream yesterday. (Simple past)
  • Yash had eaten an ice-cream the day before. (Past perfect)
  • Yash was eating an ice-cream an hour ago. (Past continuous)
  • Yash had been eating an ice-cream before going to class. (Past perfect continuous)
  • Yash eats an ice-cream every other day. (Simple present)
  • Yash has eaten an ice-cream. (Present perfect)
  • Yash is eating an ice-cream now. (Present continuous)
  • Yash has been eating an ice-cream for the past half an hour. (Present perfect continuous)
  • Yash will eat an ice-cream after dinner. (Simple future)
  • Yash will have eaten an ice-cream by the time you come. (Future perfect)
  • Yash will be eating an ice-cream when you come. (Future continuous)
  • Yash will have been eating an ice-cream by the time you come. (Future perfect continuous)

List of Common Errors

Following is the list of common errors that can be seen in “spotting the error” questions in exam

  1. words beginning with ‘h’ like, honour, honest, heir etc. are considered to be silent. Hence the vowel following it takes ‘an’, instead of ‘a’ for the article. Hence, the correct usage is “an hour”, “an heir”, “an honour” etc.
  2. In case of using prepositions, you need to keep in mind the following definitions –

between (to be used for only two)

  1.  Always check for subject-verb agreement – if a subject is singular, then its verb should also be singular. On similar grounds, if a subject is plural, then its verb should also be plural. Furthermore,  if you write in the present tense, both the noun and the verb take plural forms in opposite ways. For instance, the noun adds an “s” to its singular form, on the other hand, the verb removes the “s” from its singular form.
  2. Check for errors in use of conjunctions – remember that a sentence only uses one conjunction at a time. For instance, use of both “as” and “so” in the same sentence is incorrect.
  3. Distinction between “much” and “many” – the word “much” is used before uncountable nouns, while the word “many” is used before countable nouns.

Here, uncountable nouns are substances which can not be further broker down into smaller elements. For example, “litres of milk” (here the word “milk” can not be further broken down into smaller units). On the other hand, countable nouns are substances which can be broken down into smaller elements. For instance, “two dogs” (here the existence of the word “two” makes the verb countable.

NOTE: it is also important that you work on your vocabulary, to maximize your marks in the English Language section.

  1. Distinction between “whose” and “which” – the word “whose” is used to address living entities and the word “which” is used  for lifeless objects.  For instance, the sentence, “which book is lying there?” is incorrect and the sentence “whose book is lying there?” is correct.
  2. The pronoun “one”as a subject should use “one’s” because it does not indicate towards a specific gender – male or female.
  3. The combination of words “One of” always takes a plural noun after it. For instance, the sentence, “it is one of the saddest day” is incorrect and the sentence, “it is one of the saddest days” is correct.
  4. Collective nounslike public, committee, team, audience, government,  etc. can be used both as singular and plural depending on their meaning. When these words refer to a unit, the verb is singular, otherwise it is plural.
  5. There are certain nouns that refer to length, measure, money or a number. When they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form. These nouns are – Foot, metre, pair , score, dozen, head , year, hundred, thousand, million etc.

How to Solve Sentence Correction Questions

 In this topic you have to find the correct alternative which may improve the sentence. Sometimes there is no correction required then your answer will be no improvement.

Tips to solve Sentence Correction in Exam

(i) Read the original sentence carefully and try to spot grammatical errors by identifying whether something “sounds” wrong.

(ii) Always look at every choice.

(iii) Even when the original sentence seems fine, pay attention to the grammar that it tests and look through the choices systematically to see if any alternative provides a better option.

(iv) As you locate each error, eliminate all of the choices that contain that error.

(v) Do not read each answer choice back into the sentence individually; that wastes time and invites inaccuracy.

(vi) Instead, identify the differences among the choices and eliminate those that offer less effective or grammatically incorrect alternatives.

Questions for Practice

Directions: Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical error or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The letter of that part is the answer. If there is ‘No error’, the answer is (5). (Ignore errors of punctuation, if any.)

  1. The area was plunged into, (1) / darkness mid a wave of (2) / cheering and shouting (3) / slogans like ‘Save and Earth’. (4) No error (5)
  2. The poll contestants approached the commission (1) / complaining that the hoardings (2) / violated the code of conduct (3)/ and influenced the public perception. (4) No error (5)
  3. The country has (1) / adequate laws but problems arise (2) / when these are not (3) / implemented in letter and spirit. (4) No error (5)
  4. The management feels that (1) / the employees of the organization are (2) / non – productive, and do not want (3) / to work hard (4)/ No error (5)
  5. As far the issue of land encroachment (1) / in villages is concerned, people will (2) / have to make a start from their villages by (3) / sensitizing and educating the villagers about the issue. (4) No error (5)

_______________________________________________

Answers :

1 (2) ; 2 (5) ; 3(5) ; 4 (3) ; 5(1)

 

Reasoning Short Tricks Book(860+ pages)

 

26 Tips for Spotting Errors in English

Even those of us who are well-versed with English end up making the silliest of errors in grammar. It is a very natural tendency but error-spotting is not an art that one can’t master. It is just a matter of swearing by some guidelines and practice! Here are 26 tips for error spotting in English:

  1. Certain nouns possess a singular form but still represent plurality and thus, take a plural verb when used in a sentence.

E.g. Cattle, peasantry, people, clergy, police.

Thus,

  • The Police has come (Incorrect)
  • The Police have come (Correct)
  1. Certain nouns always take the plural verb because their form is always plural.

E.g. Scissors, trousers, spectacles, thanks, premises.

Thus,

  • The scissors is kept on the table. (Incorrect)
  • The scissors are kept on the table. (Correct)
  1. When a number is followed by a noun denoting measure, length, money, number or weight, the form of the nouns does not change so long as they are followed by another noun or pronoun.

E.g. Million, pair, metre, year, dozen, foot, head.

Thus,

  • This is a nine-metres cloth. (Incorrect)
  • This is a nine-metre cloth. (Correct)
  1. When a number is followed by a noun denoting measure, length, money, number or weight, but these are not followed by another noun or pronoun, then they take the plural form.
    E.g. Million, pair, metre, year, dozen, foot, head.

Thus,

  • This sari is nine yard long. (Incorrect)
  • This sari is nine yards long. (Correct)
  1. Certain nouns, especially of the collective category, are used as singular when they specify a unit.

E.g. Public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company, jury.

Thus,

  • The public were unanimous in their opinion. (Incorrect)
  • The public was unanimous in its opinion. (Correct)
  1. Certain nouns, especially of the collective category, are used in plural when they specify a difference of opinion or class.
    E.g. Public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company, jury.

Thus,

  • The jury was divided in its opinion. (Incorrect)
  • The jury were divided in their opinion. (Correct)
  1. If the pronoun ‘one’ is used, it must be maintained throughout the sentence.

Thus,

  • One must respect his elders.  (Incorrect)
  • One must respect one’s elders. (Correct)
  1. The word ‘whose’is used for living people and ‘which’ is used for non-living things or ideas.

Thus,

  • Which box is kept on the table? (Incorrect)
  • Whose box is kept on the table?  (Correct)
  1. ‘Less’ is used to denote quantity while ‘fewer’ is used to denote number.

Thus,

  • No less than twenty people were (Incorrect)
  • No fewer than twenty people were (Correct)
  1. ‘One of’is always followed by noun in the plural form.

Thus,

  • She is one of the least important person in the office. (Incorrect)
  • She is one of the least important people in the office. (Correct)
  1. Only ‘than’ should be used after ‘no other’
    Thus,
  • I like no other movie but Titanic. (Incorrect)
  • I like no other movie than Titanic. (Correct)
  1. After the word ‘Know’, ‘how, ‘what’ or ‘when’ should be used before using the infinitive.

Thus,

  • I know to speak English. (Incorrect)
  • I know how to speak English. (Correct)
  1. If the verb indicates a purpose, an infinitive must be used and if the verb indicates a cause, a gerund must be used.

Thus,

  • He went to the mall for watching a movie. (Incorrect)
  • He went to the mall to watch a movie. (Correct)
  • He was suspended to show indiscipline. (Incorrect)
  • He was suspended for showing indiscipline.(Correct)

14.’As’ is not used with verbs like ‘appointed’, ‘elected’ , ‘considered’, ‘called’ but it is used with the word ‘regard’.

Thus,

  • He was elected as Secretary of the organisation. (Incorrect)
  • He was elected Secretary of the organisation. (Correct)
  • I regard Sahil my best friend. (Incorrect)
  • I regard Sahil as my best friend. (Correct)
  1. Adverbs should not be confused for adjectives. An adjective describes the characteristic of the subject while an adverb describes the action of the verb.

Thus,

  • The horse looked beautifully. (Incorrect)
  • The horse looked beautiful. (Correct)
  1. Question tags are always the opposite of the sentence which means that if the sentence is positive, the question tag is negative and vice versa.

Thus,

  • You were dancing, were you? (Incorrect)
  • You were dancing, weren’t you? (Correct)
  1. An infinitive verb should never be split.

Thus,

  • I request you to kindly tell me. (Incorrect)
  • I request you kindly to tell me. (Correct)
  1. A pronoun after ‘like’, ‘unlike’ and ‘let’ takes an objective case.

Thus,

  • You will never find a woman like she. (Incorrect)
  • You will never find a woman like her. (Correct)
  • Let I do it. (Incorrect)
  • Let me do it. (Correct)
  1. The relative pronoun ‘that’is used instead of ‘who’ or ‘which’ after adjectives in the superlative degree.

Thus,

  • This is the best which she could do. (Incorrect)
  • This is the best that she could do. (Correct)
  1. To show equality ‘as’is used both before and after the adjective.

Thus,

  • I can run as fast, if not faster than you. (Incorrect)
  • I can run as fast as, if not faster than you. (Correct)
  1. Even though‘More than one’indicates a plural sense, it agrees with a singular noun and takes a singular verb.

Thus,

  • More than one students completed their project. (Incorrect)
  • More than one student completed his project. (Correct)
  1. ‘Scarcely’and ‘hardly’ are followed by ‘when’ and not by ‘than’.

Thus,

  • Hardly had the teacher left the room than the pupils started enjoying. (Incorrect)
  • Hardly had the teacher left the room when the pupils started enjoying. (Correct)
  1. ‘Though’ is followed by ‘yet’and not by ‘but’.

Thus,

  • Though he is poor but he is honest. (Incorrect)
  • Though he is poor, yet he is honest. (Correct)
  1. ‘Lest’must be followed by ‘should’ or by nothing at all and ‘Such’ must be followed by ‘as’.

Thus,

  • Work hard lest you will fail. (Incorrect)
  • Work hard lest you should fail. (Correct)
  • Work hard lest you fail. (Correct)
  • He is such a writer that everybody should read his books. (Incorrect)
  • He is such a writer as everybody should read his books. (Correct)
  1. ‘Unless’ expresses a condition and is always used in the negative sense. Thus ‘not’ is never used with ‘unless’.

Thus,

  • Unless you do not work hard, you will not excel in the examination. (Incorrect)
  • Unless you work hard, you will not excel in the examination. (Correct)
  1. ‘When’denotes a general sense and ‘while’ implies a time duration of doing something.

Thus,

  • When learning how to sing, technique is of utmost importance. (Incorrect)
  • While learning how to sing, technique is of utmost importance. (Correct)

After reading these amazing Error spotting techniques, do practice some exercises on the same to get a good grip on the topic. Keep looking this space as we would be coming up with more related articles to make your preparation journey easy.

You are now armed with 26 tips for spotting errors in English for SBI PO. Here are 26 more rules and you can be confident about tackling any error spotting or phrase replacement question.

  1. Some nouns always use a singular verb.

Eg: Advice, scenery, stationery, mathematics, news

  • Mathematics are a difficult subject. (Incorrect)
  • Mathematics is a difficult subject. (Correct)
  1. ‘Who’ denotes the subject and ‘whom’ denotes the object.
  • Whom do you think won the competition? (Incorrect)
  • Who do you think won the competition? (Correct)
  • Who did you talk to? ( Incorrect)
  • Whom did you talk to? ( Correct)
  1. The verb and pronoun in case of two nouns joined by ‘either…or’ or ‘neither… nor’ or by ‘or’ take the form of the latter noun.
  • Either my father or my sister will use their credit card. (Incorrect)
  • Either my father or my sister will use her credit card. (Correct)
  1. The verb and pronoun are plural when there is one singular noun and one plural noun and is joined by the conjunction ‘and’.
  • The teacher and her students donated her money. (Incorrect)
  • The teacher and her students donated their money. (Correct)
  1. When there are two nouns joined by a preposition like ‘with’ or ‘along with’, the verb and pronoun take the form of the main (first) noun.
  • Mansi, along with her students, were on their way to the movies. (Incorrect)
  • Mansi, along with her students, was on her way to the movies. (Correct)
  1. If the plural subject indicates a definite amount or quantity taken as a

whole, it takes the verb in the singular form.

  • Eighty kilometres are a good distance.( Incorrect)
  • Eighty kilometres is a good distance. (Correct)
  1. When two or more adjectives show the qualities of the same person or thing, all the adjectives must be in the same degree.
  • Bhanu is more intelligent and wise than Manu. (Incorrect)
  • Bhanu is more intelligent and wiser than Manu. (Correct)
  1. When two singular nouns are joined by ‘and’ are preceded by ‘each’ or ‘every’ the pronoun used is singular.
  • Each man and each boy must be rewarded for their good deeds. ( Incorrect)
  • Each man and each boy must be rewarded for his good deeds. (Correct)
  1. ‘No sooner’ is always followed by ‘than’.
  • No sooner had the bell rung when the students started leaving the classroom. (Incorrect)
  • No sooner had the bell rung than the students started leaving the room.( Correct)
  1. ‘No sooner’ is always followed by ‘does/do’ or ‘has/have’ in the present tense and by ‘did’ or ‘had’ in the past tense.
  • No sooner are the boys marching than the whistle blows. (Incorrect)
  • No sooner do the boys march than the whistle blows.( Correct)
  1. ‘A great many’ is always followed by a plural noun and a plural verb.
  • A great many invention has been declared successful. (Incorrect)
  • A great many inventions have been declared successful. (Correct)
  1. ‘Some’ is used in affirmative sentences to express quantity or degree. ‘Any’ is to be used in negative or interrogative sentences.
  • I shall buy some books. (Correct)
  • I shall not buy any books. (Correct)
  • Have you bought any books? (Correct)

But ‘some’ might be used in interrogative sentences which are requests.

  • Will you please give me some water? (Correct)
  1. ‘Since’ indicates a point of time and ‘for’ stands for the length of time.
  • He has been reading the book since three hours. (Incorrect)
  • He has been reading the book for three hours. (Correct)
  • It has been raining heavily for Monday. (Incorrect)
  • It has been raining heavily since Monday. (Correct)
  1. When we use ‘everybody’ ‘everyone’, ‘anybody’, and ‘each’ the pronoun of the masculine or the feminine gender is used with respect to the content.
  • I shall be willing to help each of the girls in her practice. (Incorrect)

But when the gender is not mentioned, we use the pronoun of the masculine gender.

  • Anyone can do this job if he tries. (Correct)
  • Each of the boys in the class has finished their tasks. (Incorrect)
  • Each of the boys in the class has finished his task. (Correct)
  1. A singular pronoun is used for a collective nouns, and should be in the neuter gender if the collective noun is viewed as a whole.
  • The pride gave away their location by roaring loudly. (Incorrect)
  • The pride gave away its location by roaring loudly. (Correct)
  1. When pronouns of different persons are to be used together in a sentence, the sequence of persons should be as follows: second person + third + first person in a normal sentence.
  • Raju, I and you have finished the work. (Incorrect)
  • You, Raju and I have finished our studies. (Correct)
  1. ‘Older’ refers to persons as well as things and is usually followed by ‘than’.
  • Raju is elder than all other boys of this class. (Incorrect)
  • Raju is older than all other boys of this class. (Correct)

‘Elder’ is used for members of the family.

  • Suyash is my older brother. (Incorrect)
  • Suyash is my elder brother. (Correct)
  1. ‘Than’ is used in the comparative degree usually , but with words like superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, anterior, posterior and prefer ‘to’ is used.
  • Gandhi is preferred than Nehru. (Incorrect)
  • Gandhi is preferred to Nehru. (Correct)
  1. ‘Many a’ is always followed by the singular verb.
  • Many a man were influenced by the speech. (Incorrect)
  • Many a man was influenced by the speech. (Correct)
  1. The singular verb is used when the subject is “the number of”.
  • The number of buildings are very low. (Incorrect)
  • The number of buildings is very low. (Correct)
  1. ‘Since’, ‘because’, ‘as’, ‘for ‘are often used alternatively, however there is a difference in their degree. Stronger cases use ‘since’ and ‘because’ and ‘as’ and ‘for’ are used in weak cases.
  • I respect him as he is the best teacher. (Incorrect)
  • I respect him because he is the best teacher. (Correct)
  1. A pronoun is sometimes incorrectly used where it is not required at all. Eliminate the redundant ones.
  • He, being an M.A., he is over qualified for the position. (Incorrect)
  • He, being an M.A., is over qualified for the position. (Correct)
  1. The relative pronoun ‘that’ is used instead of ‘who’ or ‘which’ after adjectives in the superlative degree.
  • This is the best which the doctors could do. (Incorrect)
  • This is the best that the doctors could do. (Correct)
  1. When ‘as if’ is used in the sense of pretension, ‘were’ is used in all cases, even with third person singular.
  • She behaves as if she was a queen. (Incorrect)
  • She behaves as if she were a queen. (Correct)
  1. A pronoun takes an objective case after ‘let’.
  • Let I show it. (Incorrect)
  • Let me show it. (Correct)
  1. Pronouns joined by ‘and’ are in the same case.
  • He and me are friends. (Incorrect)
  • He and I are friends. (Correct)

 

  1. Certain nouns possess a singular form but still represent plurality and thus, take a plural verb when used in a sentence.

E.g. Cattle, peasantry, people, clergy, police.

Thus,

  • The Police has come (Incorrect)
  • The Police have come (Correct)
  1. Certain nouns always take the plural verb because their form is always plural.

E.g. Scissors, trousers, spectacles, thanks, premises.

Thus,

  • The scissors is kept on the table. (Incorrect)
  • The scissors are kept on the table. (Correct)
  1. When a number is followed by a noun denoting measure, length, money, number or weight, the form of the nouns does not change so long as they are followed by another noun or pronoun.

E.g. Million, pair, metre, year, dozen, foot, head.

Thus,

  • This is a nine-metres cloth. (Incorrect)
  • This is a nine-metre cloth. (Correct)
  1. When a number is followed by a noun denoting measure, length, money, number or weight, but these are not followed by another noun or pronoun, then they take the plural form.
    E.g. Million, pair, metre, year, dozen, foot, head.

Thus,

  • This sari is nine yard long. (Incorrect)
  • This sari is nine yards long. (Correct)
  1. Certain nouns, especially of the collective category, are used as singular when they specify a unit.

E.g. Public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company, jury.

Thus,

  • The public were unanimous in their opinion. (Incorrect)
  • The public was unanimous in its opinion. (Correct)
  1. Certain nouns, especially of the collective category, are used in plural when they specify a difference of opinion or class.
    E.g. Public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company, jury.

Thus,

  • The jury was divided in its opinion. (Incorrect)
  • The jury were divided in their opinion. (Correct)
  1. If the pronoun ‘one’ is used, it must be maintained throughout the sentence.

Thus,

  • One must respect his elders.  (Incorrect)
  • One must respect one’s elders. (Correct)
  1. The word ‘whose’is used for living people and ‘which’ is used for non-living things or ideas.

Thus,

  • Which box is kept on the table? (Incorrect)
  • Whose box is kept on the table?  (Correct)
  1. ‘Less’ is used to denote quantity while ‘fewer’ is used to denote number.

Thus,

  • No less than twenty people were (Incorrect)
  • No fewer than twenty people were (Correct)
  1. ‘One of’is always followed by noun in the plural form.

Thus,

  • She is one of the least important person in the office. (Incorrect)
  • She is one of the least important people in the office. (Correct)
  1. Only ‘than’ should be used after ‘no other’
    Thus,
  • I like no other movie but Titanic. (Incorrect)
  • I like no other movie than Titanic. (Correct)
  1. After the word ‘Know’, ‘how, ‘what’ or ‘when’ should be used before using the infinitive.

Thus,

  • I know to speak English. (Incorrect)
  • I know how to speak English. (Correct)
  1. If the verb indicates a purpose, an infinitive must be used and if the verb indicates a cause, a gerund must be used.

Thus,

  • He went to the mall for watching a movie. (Incorrect)
  • He went to the mall to watch a movie. (Correct)
  • He was suspended to show indiscipline. (Incorrect)
  • He was suspended for showing indiscipline.(Correct)

14.‘As’ is not used with verbs like ‘appointed’, ‘elected’ , ‘considered’, ‘called’ but it is used with the word ‘regard’.

Thus,

  • He was elected as Secretary of the organisation. (Incorrect)
  • He was elected Secretary of the organisation. (Correct)
  • I regard Sahil my best friend. (Incorrect)
  • I regard Sahil as my best friend. (Correct)

15. Adverbs should not be confused for adjectives. An adjective describes the characteristic of the subject while an adverb describes the action of the verb.

Thus,

  • The horse looked beautifully. (Incorrect)
  • The horse looked beautiful. (Correct)
  1. Question tags are always the opposite of the sentence which means that if the sentence is positive, the question tag is negative and vice versa.

Thus,

  • You were dancing, were you? (Incorrect)
  • You were dancing, weren’t you? (Correct)

17. An infinitive verb should never be split.

Thus,

  • I request you to kindly tell me. (Incorrect)
  • I request you kindly to tell me. (Correct)
  1. A pronoun after ‘like’, ‘unlike’ and ‘let’ takes an objective case.

Thus,

  • You will never find a woman like she. (Incorrect)
  • You will never find a woman like her. (Correct)
  • Let I do it. (Incorrect)
  • Let me do it. (Correct)
  1. The relative pronoun ‘that’is used instead of ‘who’ or ‘which’ after adjectives in the superlative degree.

Thus,

  • This is the best which she could do. (Incorrect)
  • This is the best that she could do. (Correct)
  1. To show equality ‘as’is used both before and after the adjective.

Thus,

  • I can run as fast, if not faster than you. (Incorrect)
  • I can run as fast as, if not faster than you. (Correct)
  1. Even though‘More than one’indicates a plural sense, it agrees with a singular noun and takes a singular verb.

Thus,

  • More than one students completed their project. (Incorrect)
  • More than one student completed his project. (Correct)
  1. ‘Scarcely’and ‘hardly’ are followed by ‘when’ and not by ‘than’.

Thus,

  • Hardly had the teacher left the room than the pupils started enjoying. (Incorrect)
  • Hardly had the teacher left the room when the pupils started enjoying. (Correct)
  1. ‘Though’ is followed by ‘yet’and not by ‘but’.

Thus,

  • Though he is poor but he is honest. (Incorrect)
  • Though he is poor, yet he is honest. (Correct)
  1. ‘Lest’must be followed by ‘should’ or by nothing at all and ‘Such’ must be followed by ‘as’.

Thus,

  • Work hard lest you will fail. (Incorrect)
  • Work hard lest you should fail. (Correct)
  • Work hard lest you fail. (Correct)
  • He is such a writer that everybody should read his books. (Incorrect)
  • He is such a writer as everybody should read his books. (Correct)
  1. ‘Unless’ expresses a condition and is always used in the negative sense. Thus ‘not’ is never used with ‘unless’.

Thus,

  • Unless you do not work hard, you will not excel in the examination. (Incorrect)
  • Unless you work hard, you will not excel in the examination. (Correct)
  1. ‘When’denotes a general sense and ‘while’ implies a time duration of doing something.

Thus,

  • When learning how to sing, technique is of utmost importance. (Incorrect)
  • While learning how to sing, technique is of utmost importance. (Correct)

Quantitative aptitude Short Tricks Book (600+ Pages)

Problems To Practice


Directions: Five sentences have been given in each question, out of which only one is grammatically and structurally correct. Identify the correct sentence and mark that as your answer.

  1. A. As an important member of WTO, India has been in the forefront of framing fair global rules, regulations and safeguards and advocated the interests of the developing world.
    B. About 82% Indians were in favour of demonetization as they thought that it would prove to be remarkable towards eradication of black money.
    C. The UPA government denied to have any hand in the latest coal scandal, unearthed by the apex investigation agency, CBI
    D. Inspite of being a farmer’s son, he worked to his maximum capacity but his hardwork did not bore any fruit
    E. You have to analyze areas such as tax reforms, foreign exchange markets and trade and investment sectors which receive greater attention in and after 1991
Answer & Explanation
Answer – B
Explanation :
A – Preposition ‘in’ should be replaced with ‘at’, it should be ‘at the forefront’
C- deny(verb) always uses a Gerund (Verb + ing). Ex – He denied stealing (not to steal) the pen. So, it should be ‘denied having’ in the sentence.
D – Did requires first form of the verb, hence it should be ‘bear’ not ‘bore’.
E – Replace ‘receive’ with ‘received’. Sentence talks of things which have happened in the past (sectors getting attention in 1991), hence verb should be used accordingly.

  • A. However, there is an opposing group of public intellectuals that consider social justice to be of paramount importance in India as well as abroad
    B. Yet, not only has safety not been a priority in the state-owned mines but the govt seems to have turned a full circle with the outsourcing of jobs to private contractors.
    C. Education level of children between the age group 10 to 18 years has been deteriorating swiftly due to scarcity of qualified teachers especially in the schools in rural areas.
    D. The central bank’s Monetary Policy Committee(MPC) has opted to sit pat on rates and choose to give itself time to assess how the transitory effects of demonetization on inflation and the output gap play out.
    E. Two commandos were rescued by Indian Coast Guard when the Pakistan Marine Security Agency’s boat capsized in the Indian territorial waters.

 

Answer & Explanation
Answer – E
Explanation :
A – Replace ‘consider’ with ‘considers’. Subject here is not ‘intellectuals’ but ‘group’ (singular), hence the verb ‘consider’ has to be used accordingly. GYAAN – Remember that prepositional phrase (OF public intellectuals) can never have main subject in the sentence.
B – ‘Not only’ is used in conjunction with ‘but also’. Hence the sentence should be ‘but also the govt seems…….’.
C – ‘Between’ should be replaced with ‘in’. If ‘between’ is to be used, sentence should be – Children between the age 10 and 18. Here we are talking of an age group and the children who come under (or in) this age group.
D- In the sentence MPC has opted (past participle or third form of verb) & choose (first form of verb)- the two verbs are not coherent.

  • A. In rural areas, the quota has helped to improve local governance and enhancing outcomes in delivery of civic services related to drinking water, sanitation and irrigation, among others.
    B. That promise requires amendments to the Prevention of Corruption Act, particularly the much-too-broad and subjective Section 13(1)(d) that has resulted in many an honest officers being charge sheeted for the corruption.
    C. The transaction under this system may be made for amounts inclusive of paisa component when there is no upper value limit for putting through an individual NEFT transaction.
    D. CBI has solved the case of suicide in one of Bangalore’s posh areas and has accused the Sharma family but only the mastermind Suresh and not his relatives were arrested.
    E. Research on labour market discrimination against disadvantaged social groups based on caste, and religion have received very little attention among social scientists.

 

Answer & Explanation
Answer – C
Explanation :
A- Parallelism in English requires verbs to be coherent. I love to dance; I love singing – if we join these two sentences with conjunction ‘and’ then sentences would be: I love singing and dancing or I love to sing and dance. In the same way, two verbs here – improve & enhancing – must be coherent. Hence replace ‘enhancing’ with ‘enhance’.
B- Many persons go to Delhi; Many a person goes to Delhi. Both the sentences are correct and have same meaning, just the syntax is different. Many a/an + noun (singular) + verb (singular). Hence replace ‘officers’ with ‘officer’.
D-emphasizes that only Suresh ‘was’ arrested, not his relatives. Hence the main subject here is only ‘Suresh’, so use ‘was’ in place of ‘were’. Ex – I and not my brothers am invited; Players and not the captain were called.
E – Main subject here is ‘research’, hence the auxiliary (or helping verb) used in C, ‘have’ should be replaced by ‘has’. Research has received little attention.

  • A. The Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) is a government body who is responsible for regulating investments received by Indian factories from foreign countries.
    B. In a strange incident during the dope testing, when the doctors found that Tyson Gay had taken prohibited drugs, he reported the matter to the concerned authorities
    C. The number of failures of any indigenously manufactured product in the final quality inspection are increasing every year
    D. While race as a category may have been discredited in science, the primordial loyalties that early observers had characterised as racial remain to this day
    E. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley introduced a bill to amend the Income Tax law, which provides for black money declarants a mandatory taxing of 25 per cent of the amount undisclosed.

 

Answer & Explanation
Answer – D
Explanation :
A – ‘Which’ (a pronoun) is used for non-living things; in this case, it has been used for FIPB . ‘Who’ (a pronoun) is used when referring to people or living things
B – Subject here is ‘Doctors’ (plural), hence use pronoun ‘they’ instead of ‘he’
C- use ‘is’ instead of ‘are’. The primary subject here is ‘number’ not ‘failures’. GYAAN – Remember that prepositional phrase (OF failures) never contains main subject of the sentence.
E – ‘Taxing’ is a verb; to modify a verb we need an adverb, hence it should be ‘Mandatorily’. Mandatory is an adjective.

  • A .Meanwhile, government has made several exception, allowing people to use invalid currency notes for buying petrol, diesel, rail and air tickets, payment off public utilities, taxes and government hospitals.
    B. Long queues were witnessed on November 10, the day on which banks opened after the announcement of demonetisation as people thronged banks and post offices to exchange and deposit invalid currency notes.
    C. Some strategists argue that merely by reaching out to Romney, Trump was demonstrating an openness to new people and ideas, even from unlikeliest of sources
    D. Both Romney as well as Trump put on a show of smiles, a public handshake and a thumbs-up on Saturday after the announcement of President-elect
    E. It is clear that Trump and Romney’s strategies were hugely apart and more than a public attempt to bury the hatchet after trading ferocious insults during the campaign.

 

Answer & Explanation
Answer – B
Explanation :
A – Several means many, hence the noun following it should be plural. Replace ‘exception’ with ‘exceptions’.
C – Superlative degree of adjective must be preceded by article ‘the’. Hence it should be ‘the unlikeliest of sources’
D – When joining two nouns with ‘both’, ‘and’ should be used as conjunction. Hence ‘as well as’ should be replaced with ‘and’
E – It should be “Trump’s and Romney’s strategies”. Understand the usage when two subjects are involved.
1.Where two or more people own one item together or are involved in same thing or are related to the thing talked of in the sentence, then place an apostrophe before an “s” only after the second-named person. For example:
Incorrect: Bill’s and Mary’s car was yellow
Correct: Bill and Mary’s car was yellow
2.However, when two or more people own two or more items separately, each individual’s name should take the possessive form. For example:
Incorrect: Joanne and Todd’s cars were bought from the same dealer
Correct: Joanne’s and Todd’s cars were bought from the same dealer

  • A. Far from rising to the responsibilities of the new compact, the polity reverted its default position of the 1990s, with short-term power grabs and spells of political instability.
    B. I couldn’t recognize her initially but on a closer look, I found the black tall woman in red dress was none other than Chan’s wife
    C. What’s wrong with BCCI is not that it has monopoly over cricket in India but it is the BCCI who decides the cost of providing cricket coverage to channels
    D. Despite the attempts by the government to bring international students to India, the experience of foreign students here has not always been a happy one.
    E. Kelkar Committee appointed by Railway found that no less than 160 people were killed in the recent mishap, described as the most fatal accident since independence

 

Answer & Explanation
Answer – D
Explanation :
A – ‘Reverted’ must be followed by preposition ‘to’. Revert – return to a previous state, practice etc.
B- When using multiple adjectives, sequence has to be followed:
a- What we think (Lovely, beautiful, intelligent, nice, fine…)
b- Size (small, big, large, short, tall…)
c- Age (young, old…)
d- Shape (round, slim, fat, square…)
e- Color (white, green, red…)
f- Material (plastic, glass, wooden…)
g- Origin (German, Russian, American…)
So, the sentence should be- tall(size) black (color) woman
C- At all times, coherence should be maintained in a sentence. It should be : ‘BCCI is not that……but that it is……’.  . Conjunction ‘but’ joins two sentences
1. What’s wrong with BCCI is not that it has ……….. +
2.What’s wrong with BCCI is that it is the BCCI……….
E- ’Less’ refers to quantity (uncountable noun), whereas ‘fewer’ is used in case of number (or countable noun). So replace ‘less’ with ‘fewer’.

  • A. My boss does not believe that I am working sincerely and obediently for the interest of the company for all these years
    B. The Supreme Court made playing of the national anthem mandatory before movie screenings in theatres through the country, underlining that it would instill a sense of committed patriotism in citizens
    C. With a view to enhance the spectrum of tourism govt has come up with a new plan of tourism circuits to be implemented in 2019
    D. When Mathrani made this allegation, Natwar Singh was on a flight returning from an official visit to abroad where he did a lot of work
    E. 18 months later, he had to resign under a cloud after the UN’s Volcker committee named both him and the Congress party as beneficiaries of illegal pay-offs in the Iraqi oil scam

 

Answer & Explanation
Answer -E 
Explanation :
A – Replace ‘I am’ with ‘I have been’. Continuous tense in place of perfect continuous is incorrect when time is mentioned or implied. Ex-
Incorrect: I am doing this work for 2 hours.
Correct: I have been doing this work for 2 hours
B- Replace ‘through’ with ‘throughout’ or ‘across’. Throughout/Across the country means ‘in the whole country’. Through – moving in one side and out of the other side. Ex- Unable to find the house keys, she entered through a window
C – ‘With a view to’ is always followed by a gerund (v+ing), hence the sentence should be ‘With a view to enhancing the spectrum’
D-  ‘To’ is redundant. Consider the following example:
He went to London.
He went abroad/upstairs.
In the second case ‘abroad’ and ‘upstairs’ act as adverb of place and we do not use ‘to’ before them.
  • A. Nalanda University was found in 7th Century BC and flourished under the patronage Of Gupta empire and later under Harsha, the Emperor of Kannauj during 5th and 6th century.
    B. I spoke to my sister in Chandigarh, who told me that she won the Best Player award in the bilateral series against Australia.
    C. The agreement between India and Sri Lanka on establishing a Joint Working Group on fisheries is a small step forward in resolving the dispute between fishermen of both countries
    D. The medical team deserves receiving the award for its exceptional work in sub-Saharan Africa where it treated a number of small children and pregnant women
    E. The Sarpanch of the village was astonished after knowing that the gentries of the village were not invited to the marriage party of his nephew.

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – C
    Explanation :
    A – Three forms of Find (to search) – Find found found. Three forms of Found (establish an institution or organization) –  found founded founded. Sentence is in passive voice, so use 3rd form of verb after ‘was’. Ex – AAP was founded in 2010 by Kejriwal.
    B – When two actions are indicated in the past tense, the earlier action should be denoted in the past perfect tense. So it should be ‘had won’.
    D-  Verb ‘deserve’ is always followed by ‘to+infinitve’. Infinitive is the simplest form of verb. India deserved to win (infinitve). Hence the sentence should be – Medical team deserves to receive ………..
    E- Gentry: the class of people next below the nobility in position and birth. It is a collective noun and is used as both singular and plural. ‘Gentries’ as a word does not exist.
  • A. With a view to bringing the identity closer to the cultural heritage of the country as also for showcasing its scientific advances, a new series of notes in a new design is being launched
    B. The Prime Minister has not only promised to improve the condition of Dalits and the poor but also the current situation of farmers in different parts of India
    C. I promised my mother that I will come back home from the Business Trip in Sweden, alongwith my wife as soon as my friend will arrive to Sweden from his work trip in the USA
    D. As critics of demonetisation have argued, it has led to a massive reduction in production, particularly in the unorganised sector accounting at 90% of employment and over half of domestic output
    E. During the last couple of years, animation has become a boom business fueled by the ever-increasing demand of the entertainment industry.

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – A
    Explanation :
    B – ‘Not only’ should come after ‘promised’. ‘Not only…..but also’ is a conjunction which joins two sentences. The common part needs to be taken out of both before using the conjunction. See the following –
    I.I have promised my mother + I will fulfil my promise= I have not only promised my mother but also will fulfil it.
    II.I have promised my mother+ I have promised my father = I have promised not only my mother but also my father.
    C – Whenever we have two interrelated phrases in future tense, then the condition on which one phrase depends should be in simple present tense. Correct sentence should be – I will come back (future tense), when my friend arrives (simple present). ‘When my friend arrives’ is the condition on which coming back depends.
    D – ‘At’ is wrongly used here, it must be substituted with ‘for’, hence it should be ‘accounting for’.
    E – We need an adjective here for the noun ‘business’,  the word is ‘booming’ – increasing or expanding vigorously.
  • A. Many small land owning farmers and farming households and weavers are descending into poverty due to lack of perceived income earning opportunities in relatively well performed states in India.
    B. Developed countries have committed to removing export subsidies immediately, except for a handful of agriculture products, and developing countries will do so by 2018
    C. To ensure an effective transition from hard-labour jobs in the fields for jobs related to the increased use of mechanisation, the governments have to set the right policies and incentives.
    D. China is getting old at a time when its entrepreneurial class is still in the early innings of spreading their wings.
    E. China’s public sector balance sheet is one of the more indebted in the emerging markets and likely more than Brazil, always one of the highest debt-to-GDP ratios in the big four emerging markets.

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – B
    Explanation :
    A – ‘Well performed state’ does not amount to any meaning. We need an adjective for the noun ‘states’, it should be ‘well performing states’.
    C – makes incorrect use of preposition. ‘Transition towards something’ is the correct usage. The correct statement therefore is ‘To ensure an effective transition from hard-labour jobs in the fields towards jobs related…’
    D-  the word ‘entrepreneurial class’ has been used as a collective noun which can be treated as singular. Hence ‘Spreading its wings’ needs to be used in place of ‘spreading their wings’.
    E – China’s public sector balance sheet is being compared to the public sector balance sheet of Brazil. The above statement is incorrect as it expresses comparison between the balance sheet of China and Brazil as a country (Comparison error). The correct statement should be, ‘China’s public sector balance sheet is one of the more indebted in the emerging markets and likely more than that of Brazil’…
    Sentence B is correct as the phrase ‘committed to’ is always followed by a Gerund (Verb + ing). Ex- At
  • It took the police almost 10 days / to get a owner of the Audi car / to record his statement / and join the investigation.
    1) It took the police almost 10 days
    2) to get a owner of the Audi car
    3) to record his statement
    4) and join the investigation.
    5) No error
Answer & Explanation
Answer – 2)
Explanation : Replace “a” with “the”
The definite article is used before singular and plural nouns when the noun is specific or particular. The signals that the noun is definite, that it refers to a particular member of a group. For example: “The dog that bit me ran away.”
  • The real Ishaq Ahmed was nowhere near the / scene of accident; this looks / like an attempt to frame his and / set him up to take the blame.
    1) The real Ishaq Ahmed was nowhere near the
    2) scene of accident; this looks
    3) like an attempt to frame him and
    4) set his up to take the blame.
    5) No error

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation : Replace “his” with “him”
    The forms he, she and they are used when a pronoun is the subject of a sentence. The forms him, her and them are used when a pronoun is the object of a sentence. The forms his, her, hers, their and theirs are possessive in nature.
  • A quick and thorough / probe is essential and / authorities must hand / over exemplary punishment.
    1) A quick and thorough
    2) probe is essential and
    3) authorities must hand
    4) over exemplary punishment.
    5) No error

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation : Replace “over” with “out”
    hand out will be correct phrasal verb.
    Hand out – 
    to give a number of things to the members of a group
    to give advice, a punishment, etc.
  • The apex court announced / on Monday that / it would deliver / the verdict in a week.
    1) The apex court announced
    2) on Monday that
    3) it will deliver
    4) the verdict in a week.
    5) No error

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5)
    Explanation : No error
    Given sentence is correct.
  • What keeps the party together is the / prospect of partaking of / power for its remaining / four-and-a-half year.
    1) What keeps the party together is the
    2) prospect of partaking of
    3)  power for its remaining
    4) four-and-a-half year.
    5) No error

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation : Replace “year” with “years”
    four-and-a-half years.
  • Panneerselvam was just another / advancing pawn set / in for being moved / off the board en passant.
    1) Panneerselvam was just another
    2) advancing pawn set
    3) in for being moved
    4) off the board en passant.
    5) No error

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation : Replace “in” with “up”
    set-up — the way in which something, especially an organization or equipment, is organized, planned, or arranged.
  • It was as if he wanted into / make his predecessor’s / record as Chief Minister / shine in comparison.
    1) It was as if he wanted into
    2) make his predecessor’s
    3) record as Chief Minister
    4) shine in comparison.
    5) No error

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation : Replace “into” with “to”
    into is to indicate movement toward the inside of a place.
    In Used to indicate a location or place ,indicate a shape, color, or size , a location or place and Used to express while doing something.
    Ex – In preparing for the final report, we revised the tone three times.
  • Ms. Sasikala could have displayed / the virtues of patience, and / waited for the courts / to clear her before making this move.
    1) Ms. Sasikala could have displayed
    2) the virtues of patience, and
    3) waited for the courts
    4) to clear her before making this move.
    5) No error

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation : Replace “could” with “would”.
    When could is used as the past tense of can, it refers to an ability that a person generally had in the past or to something that was generally possible in the past (“When I was younger, I could run for miles,” or “It used to be you could buy lunch for a dollar.”).
    Would is a past-tense form of will. If you are writing about past events, you can use it to indicate something that was in the future at that point in time, but is not necessarily in the future right now. In other words, you use would to preserve the future aspect when talking about the past.
  • It would also have been better had she / sought the people’s mandate / in a by-election before thinking / of the chief ministerial chair.
    1) It would also have been better had she
    2) sought the people’s mandate
    3) in a by-election before thinking
    4) of the chief ministerial chair.
    5) No error

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 5) 
    Explanation : No error
    Given sentence is correct.
  • It is no surprise that there are many who / voted for the AIADMK and Jayalalithaa / less than a year ago whom feel / cheated by the turn of events.
    1) It is no surprise that there are many who
    2) voted for the AIADMK and Jayalalithaa
    3) less than a year ago whom feel
    4) cheated by the turn of events.
    5) No error

    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation : Replace “whom” with “who”
    Whom should be used to refer to the object of a verb or preposition. When in doubt, try this simple trick: If you can replace the word with “he”’ or “’she,” use who. If you can replace it with “him” or “her,” use whom.

Directions: A sentence is divided into 3 parts. Find which part/s (i, ii, or iii) contain error and mark your answer accordingly.

  1. The recent orders of the Madras High Court asking the Centre and the Tamil Nadu government /to ensure the strict enforcement of the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013,/ in the wake of the death of 30 people engaged in the activity in the State in recent years, points to  malaise.
    i. The recent orders of the Madras High Court asking the Centre and the Tamil Nadu government
    ii.to ensure the strict enforcement of the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013,
    iii.  in the wake of the death of 30 people engaged in the activity in the State in recent years, points to  malaise
    A) Only i
    B) Only ii
    C) Only iii
    D) Both i & ii
    E) Both i & iii
View Answer
  Option E
Explanation: 
i. The recent ORDER; iii. Points to THE malaise

  • For one, we are spending too much money/ in very few places and that’s generally true of wildlife conservation/ in India, not only of tiger conservation.
    i.For one, we are spending too much money
    ii.in very few places and that’s generally true of wildlife conservation
    iii.in India, not only of tiger conservation
    A) Only i
    B) Only ii
    C) Only iii
    D) All of these
    E) None of these

 

View Answer
  Option B
Explanation:
ii. Very = too few places
  • The incident stems from differences between /Bhutan and India on the one hand and China on the other as to the exact location of /the tri-junction among the three countries.
    i.The incident stems from differences between
    ii.Bhutan and India on the one hand and China on the other as to the exact location of
    iii.the tri-junction among the three countries.
    A) Only i
    B) Both i and ii
    C) Only iii
    D) All except ii
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option C
    Explanation: 
    among = between.
  • We have done a good job in/ channelising more funds and putting in sincere efforts /for tiger conservation as compared to other Asian countries.
    i.We have done a good job in
    ii.channelising more funds and putting in sincere efforts
    iii.for tiger conservation as compared to other Asian countries
    A) Only i
    B) Only ii
    C) Both i and ii
    D) Both ii and iii
    E) Both i and iii

    View Answer
      Option E
    Explanation:
    i. Channelising = channeling; iii. Omit as
  • To begin with, the move to squeeze Qatar’s ties with Iran will only serve to isolate Tehran further,/ a mere two years after it been brought out of sanctions/, and will force New Delhi to curtail its links as well.
    i.To begin with, the move to squeeze Qatar’s ties with Iran will only serve to isolate Tehran further
    ii.a mere two years after it been brought out of sanctions
    iii.and will force New Delhi to curtail its links as well
    A) Only i
    B) Only ii
    C) Only iii
    D) All of these
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option E
    Explanation: 
    No Error.
  • The term “zero infiltration” is a fallacy /but Northern Command has done an outstanding job in checking Pakistan’s attempts/ to stoke off terror by pushing hard core, well-trained terrorists.
    i.The term “zero infiltration” is a fallacy
    ii.but Northern Command has done an outstanding job in checking Pakistan’s attempts
    iii.to stoke off terror by pushing hard core, well-trained terrorists.
    A) Only i
    B) Both i and ii
    C) Both ii and iii
    D) Only iii
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option D
    Explanation:
    omit ‘off’ as ‘to stroke  means to blow; insert in after pushing.
  • Venkataraman quotes the philosopher Anthony Appiah by saying that /the reform of Christianity 500 years ago was greatly facilitated by the fact that on encountering morally ambiguous, contradictory or problematic passages, /ordinary Christians who started reading the Bible for themselves decided on “which passages to read onto and which to read past.”
    i. Venkataraman quotes the philosopher Anthony Appiah by saying that
    ii. the reform of Christianity 500 years ago was greatly facilitated by the fact that on encountering morally ambiguous, contradictory or problematic passages,
    iii.ordinary Christians who started reading the Bible for themselves decided on “which passages to read onto and which to read past.”
    A) Only i
    B) Only ii
    C) Only i and ii
    D) Only ii and iii
    E) Only i and iii

    View Answer
      Option E
    Explanation: 
    by = as; iii. onto = into
  • A Janata member’s complaint that the former prime minister, Indira Gandhi, had committed a breach of privilege /and contempt of the House was referred to /the privileges committee of the Lok Sabha. Mrs Gandhi will face privileges proceedings for having allegedly “ contemptuously” commented on a ruling of the house.
    i.A Janata member’s complaint that the former prime minister, Indira Gandhi, had committed a breach of privilege
    ii.and contempt of the House was referred to
    iii.the privileges committee of the Lok Sabha. Mrs Gandhi will face privileges proceedings for having allegedly “ contemptuously” commented on a ruling of the house.
    A) Only i
    B) Only ii
    C) Only iii
    D) All of these
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option E
    Explanation: 
    No Error
  • It is, however, China’s action of building an all-weather road on Bhutan’s territory,/ one capable of sustaining heavy vehicles, that has prompted Bhutan and India to coordinate their action/ in their joint national interests, under the terms of the 2007 Friendship Treaty.
    i.It is, however, China’s action of building an all-weather road on Bhutan’s territory
    ii.one capable of sustaining heavy vehicles, that has prompted Bhutan and India to coordinate their action
    iii.in their joint national interests, under the terms of the 2007 Friendship Treaty
    A) Only i
    B) Only ii
    C) Only iii
    D) All of these
    E) None of these

    View Answer
      Option B
    Explanation: 
    action = actions
  • Many communities still regard the inclusion of a sanitary toilet as ritual and physical pollution /of the house, and even the less conservatives are ready to accept only large,/ expensive and unscientific structures much bigger than those recommended by the WHO.
    i.Many communities still regard the inclusion of a sanitary toilet as ritual and physical pollution
    ii.of the house, and even the less conservatives are ready to accept only large
    iii. expensive and unscientific structures much bigger than those recommended by the WHO.
    A) Only i
    B) Only ii
    C) Only iii
    D) None of these
    E) No Error

    View Answer
    Option B
    Explanation: 
    the Conservative = the group of people

In each of the following sentences, find if any part of the sentence (1), (2), (3) or (4) contains error. If there is no error mark “No Error” as you answer.

  1. The cruel lady(1)/ made her step daughter(2)/ to do all the (3)/ house hold chores(4).
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option  C
    Explanation: 
    omit to; we dont use to after causative verbs
  2. Though a majority of rural and semi-urban India(1)/ depend on government departments,(2)/ agencies and undertakings affiliated to them(3)/ for paying these bills, they have not (4)/ made any effort to integrate UPI as a payment option.(5)
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) (5)

    View Answer
      Option B
    Explanation: 
    a majority of is followed by singular verb
  3. The global economy has grown (1)/ in fits and start since (2)/ the economic crisis of 2008—one of the(3)/ longest recorded stagnations of the modern era.(4)
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option B
    Explanation: 
    fits and starts is an idiom, meaning – with irregular movement; with much stopping and starting.
  4. The key to break through (1)/ this ceiling is to change (2)/the kinds of work in which(3) people are engaged. (4)
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option
    Explanation: 
    break = breaking
  5. Though such work may seem wasteful, owing to(1)/  the number of people and amount of time it takes to secure(2)/  one major achievement or breakthrough, one such (3)/ achievement or breakthrough is all it takes to create enough(4)/  value to boost everybody’s standard of living. (5)
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option E
    Explanation: 
    No error
  6. Kalanick may not have a(1)/role to play(2)/ in every misstep at Uber, but (3)the ultimate responsibility is his.(4)
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option A
    Explanation: 
    put ‘had’ before a role
    Kalanick may not have had a role
  7. The toxic culture of sexism and harassment that permeated the company (1)/ outed by former employee Susan J. Fowler in February (2)/ and since corroborated (3)/ over a hundred other female Uber employees could not have existed(4)/ without Kalanick and the C-suite turning a purposeful blind eye. (5)
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) (5)

    View Answer
      Option C
    Explanation: 
    corroborated by
  8. The backlash from Kalanick’s joining US President Donald Trump’s economic (1)/ council; being seen as undermining a taxi (2)/ strike against Trump’s immigration ban(3)/ , resulting in a #DeleteUber campaign that (4)led to nearly 200,000 app deletions(5)
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) (5)

    View Answer
      Option B
    Explanation: 
    put his before being seen as
  9. A decade ago, capital for growth beyond (1)/ a certain point would have (2)/ meant going public, which in turn would (3) / meant more transparency and oversight. (4)
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option D
    Explanation: 
    ‘Have’ meant more transparency
  10. Today’s tech moguls are, in many ways, the(1)/ spiritual heirs of the entrepreneurs who(2)/ turned the US into an industrial powerhouse over (3)/ the course of the 19th century second half(4)
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
    Option D
    Explanation: 
    19th century’s

In each of the following sentences, find if any part of the sentence (A), (B), (C) or (D) contains error. If there is no error mark “No Correction Required” as you answer.

  1. Droning on about hanging,(A)/ participles, campaigns are mounted(B)/ against the sourcing of new words, or the (C)/prepositions that sentences sometimes end with(D).
    1. (A)
    2. (B)
    3. (C)
    4. (D)
    5. No Correction Required.

    View Answer
    Option 4
    Explanation: 

    End with > End in.
  2. He now took a great and new(A) /joy in the beauty of nature(B),/ and delighted in the allegorical interpretation(C)/ of the Song of Solomon(D).
    1. (A)
    2. (B)
    3. (C)
    4. (D)
    5. No Correction Required.

    View Answer
    Option 2
    Explanation: 

    Beauty > Beauties :
  3. I have(A)/ an(B)/ important business(C)/ at home(D)..
    1. (A)
    2. (B)
    3. (C)
    4. (D)
    5. No Correction Required.

    View Answer
    Option 3
    Explanation: 

    business> piece of business :
  4. This is (A)/the shop (B)/whose rent is(C)/ Rs. 100 per month.(D)
    1. (A)
    2. (B)
    3. (C)
    4. (D)
    5. No Correction Required.

    View Answer
    Option 3
    Explanation: 

    Whose rent = the Rent of which
  5. It is (A)/quarter to(B)/ five by(C)/ my watch.
    1. (A)
    2. (B)
    3. (C)
    4. (D)
    5. No Correction Required.

    View Answer
    Option 2
    Explanation: 

    quarter = a quarter
  6. He was(A)/ born on(B)/ 13th of April(C),/ 1950(D)
    1. (A)
    2. (B)
    3. (C)
    4. (D)
    5. No Correction Required.

    View Answer
    Option 3
    Explanation: 

    13th of April = the 13th of April or 13th April
  7. I (A)/request(B)/ you (C)/to quickly call a doctor(D)
    1. (A)
    2. (B)
    3. (C)
    4. (D)
    5. No Correction Required.

    View Answer
    Option 4
    Explanation: 

    to quickly call a doctor = to call a doctor quickly.
  8. I (A)/intend(B)/ to go (C)/to Gulmarg(D).
    1. (A)
    2. (B)
    3. (C)
    4. (D)
    5. No Correction Required.

    View Answer
    Option 3
    Explanation: 

    to go> going
  9. No Sooner (A)/I left the (B)/hall than the students(C)/ began to make a noise(D)
    1. (A)
    2. (B)
    3. (C)
    4. (D)
    5. No Correction Required.

    View Answer
    Option 2
    Explanation: 

    did I leave
  10. He emphasised(A)/ on the(B)/ point in(C) the debate(D).
    1. (A)
    2. (B)
    3. (C)
    4. (D)
    5. No Correction Required.

    View Answer
    Option 2
    Explanation: 

    Omit On.

In each of the following sentences, find if any part of the sentence (1), (2), (3) or (4) contains error. If there is no error mark “No Error” as you answer.

  1. The teacher(1)/ with (2)/ all her students(3)/ have come(4)
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option D
    Explanation: 
    Words in the subject linked with connectives, the verb agrees with the first word
  2. Scientists have reported definite signs of liquid water(1)/ on the surface of present day mars(2)/ a finding that will fuel speculation that(3)/ life, if it ever  arisen there, could persist even now(4).
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option D
    Explanation: 
    replace arisen with arose
  3. In a recent cabinet decision, the govt. (1)/ ordered that files sent for reconsideration ,(2)/ if cleared by the ministers a second time, (3)/ would be bound on all officials(4).
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option D
    Explanation: 
    replace bound with binding
  4. Police are scanning call detail records(1)// of an advocate arrested from a mall(2)/ on charge of filming on the sly from a spy camera (3)/ tucked in the lace of his right shoe(4).
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option C
    Explanation: 
    replace from with ‘with’
  5. India wants greater investment from Germany(1)/ and a positive investment climate(2)/ and tecnology partnership are crucial for (3)/ the success of ‘Make in India’ Initiative(4).
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option E
  6. Goswami was reportedly slapped and kicked before(1)/ she and her family was taken to the police station (2)/ where she was allegedly(3)/ subjected to further assault(4).
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No error

    View Answer
      Option B
    Explanation: 
    was=were
  7. Mr. Shashank Manohar has always been a person (1)/ who wants to develop(2)/ cricket and do everything(3)/ possible for the games(4).
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option E
  8. I heard him to say something (1)/ disgraceful about his (2)/ brother who had left (3)/ the house all of a sudden(4).
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option A
    Explanation: 
    replace ‘to say’  with ‘say’
  9. Parents may feel(1)/ the child will be better off going (2)/to work as he or she can help bringing additional(3)/ income to the family and learn a skill for survival(4).
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
      Option c
    Explanation: 
    Bringing= Bring
  10. Their repeated pleas for teachers had gone(1)/ unheeded and like thousands of students(2)/ elsewhere in the state,(3)/ they decided to protest(4)
    A) (1)
    B) (2)
    C) (3)
    D) (4)
    E) No Error

    View Answer
    Option E

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