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Statement and Assumptions Tricks & Tips

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Statement and Assumptions Tricks & Tips



The statements & Assumption questions are the critical part of all exams.This chapter plays an important role in logical part of an examination. “2–3” questions comes from this chapter.

                                                                             Format of question 
Directions : In each question below a statement is followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and then decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement. Give answer :-

(a) if only assumption I is implicit.
(b) if only assumption II is implicit.
(c) if either assumption I or II is implicit.
(d) if neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
(e) if both assumption I and II are implicit.

 

                                                                            Important Notes :- 

1 ) keep yourself in the shoes of the subject.

2 ) Think from the perspective of the person saying the line in the statement.

3 )  Always be careful of the key words used in the sentence, such as, most, only, all, best.

 

Statements in the form of an advertisement or an official notice or a notice issued in the public interest or an appeal are often asked in the recent exams. The following assumptions are valid in these cases.

i) An advertisement / appeal / notice does have some effect.

ii) In the case of an advertisement, that which is being highlighted is looked for and expected by the people.

iii) In the case of a public – interest notice, it is the duty of those who issue it, to issue such notices.

iv) In case of a public interest notice, what is being advised must be beneficial for people and its non-practice harmful in some way.

v) In case of an appeal, the reason for issuing it exists.
vi) In case of an official notice, the effect of its implementation will be beneficial for the organisation

 

                                                                     Preliminary Screening

Read the argument and discard it if it is:

a)Ambiguous

b)Disproportionate

c)Irrelevant

d)Comparative

e)Simplistic

                               key points which will help you to analyze the assumption in less time.

(1) Some words like only, each, any, every, all, question indicating words (why, what), answer indicating words (therefore), Definitely, But, Certainly exist in the assumption and that assumption will always be False.
(2) Some words like some, to large extent, many much exist in the assumption and that will always be True.
(3) Any assumption that is conveying the message of advertisement, notice and appeal, that assumption will always be True.
(4) Any assumption that’s talking about the social welfare (positive), govt. policies that assumption will always be True.
(5) If any assumption showing the word like suggestion, order, request that will always be True.

 

Example:-

(1) Statement :- “We offer the best training in the field of IT ” –an advertisement.
Assumptions :-
I. People are interested in getting training in IT.
II. People want the best training.
Solution :- Since an advertisement offers “best training” in the field of “IT”, it must have been assumed by the advertisers that people want “IT training and that they want the “best training”. So, both assumptions are implicit.

 

Example:-

Statement:- “Quit drinking before it destroys you.” – A notice issued in public interest by XYZ department.
Assumptions:-
I. People fear being destroyed
II. Drinking breaks the drinker‟s family.

Solution :-  The notice given by the XYZ department clearly mentions the ill – effect of drinking. The motive behind mentioning the ill – effect must be to restrict drinkers from drinking. Now, how can the motive be fulfilled?Obviously, I must be assumed. II is too specific, Hence II is not implicit

Practice Sets On statement & assumptions



Directions(1-5) : In each question below a statement (or a passage) is followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken in for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and then decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement. Give answer:

(a) if only assumption I is implicit.

(b) if only assumption II is implicit.

(c) if either assumption I or assumption II is implicit.

(d) if neither of the assumptions is implicit.

(e) if both the assumptions are implicit.

 

  1. Statement : ‘You are expected to be frank and objective while writing yourself appraisal report’ – An institution for writing self appraisal report.

Assumptions :

  1. Unless cautioned, people may tend to be little shy and less objective while writing their self appraisal report.
  2. Every self appraisal report helps the person in his further development.

 

  1. Statement : The higher echelon of any organisation are expected to be models of observational learning and should not be considered as merely sources of reward and punishments.

Assumptions :

  1. Employees are likely to be sensitive enough to learn by observing the behaviour of their bosses.
  2. Normally bosses are considered as sources of reward and punishment.

 

  1. Statement : “But, out of A,B,C and D products, you buy ‘B’ which alone is based on the international technology” – A shopkeeper tells a customer.


Assumptions :

  1. The customers normally accept the recommendation of the shopkeeper.
  2. Use of international technology is supposed to ensure better quality standards.

 

  1. Statement : Market trends are changing continuously and with increasing competitiveness, the consumers demands with respect to the prices and quality are gradually increasing.


Assumptions :

  1. Consumers did not care for the prices and quality earlier.
  2. Market competitiveness is not favorable for the consumers.

 

  1. Statement : The company has the right to reject any application form without furnishing any reason while shorting the list of candidates for interview – a condition mentioned in the employment notice.


Assumptions :

  1. It is desirable to call only eligible candidates for interview.
  2. The company believes in following impartial practice in all functions.

 

Answers

 

  1. (a) Only assumption I is implicit in the statement. The instruction was given on the assumption that people tend to be little shy and less objective while writing their self appraisal report.2. (e) Both assumption I and II are implicit in the statement. Assumption I is clearly implicit in the statement since it is stated that bosses should not be considered as merely sources of reward and punishments. It implies that the bosses are generally considered so. Hence assumption II is also implicit in the statement.3. (e) Both the assumption I and II are implicit in the statement. Assumption II is clearly implicit in the statement. Assumption I is also implicit because the shopkeeper gives his suggestions on the assumption that the customer will consider it.4. (d) Assumption I is not implicit. Consumers are paying mere attention to prices and quality product now-a-days does not mean that they were indifferent to these
    factors earlier. Assumption II is just the opposite of what is told in the statement. So it is also not implicit.5. (a) Only assumption I is implicit in the statement. The statement does not imply that all functions of the company are implicit. So assumption II is not implicit.

    Directions(1-5) : In each question below a statement (or a passage) is followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken in for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and then decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement. Give answer:

(a) if only assumption I is implicit.

(b) if only assumption II is implicit.

(c) if either assumption I or assumption II is implicit.

(d) if neither of the assumptions is implicit.

(e) if both the assumptions are implicit.

 

  1. Statement : ‘You are expected to be frank and objective while writing yourself appraisal report’ – An institution for writing self appraisal report.

Assumptions :

  1. Unless cautioned, people may tend to be little shy and less objective while writing their self appraisal report.
  2. Every self appraisal report helps the person in his further development.

 

  1. Statement : The higher echelon of any organisation are expected to be models of observational learning and should not be considered as merely sources of reward and punishments.

Assumptions :

  1. Employees are likely to be sensitive enough to learn by observing the behaviour of their bosses.
  2. Normally bosses are considered as sources of reward and punishment.

 

  1. Statement : “But, out of A,B,C and D products, you buy ‘B’ which alone is based on the international technology” – A shopkeeper tells a customer.

Assumptions :

  1. The customers normally accept the recommendation of the shopkeeper.
  2. Use of international technology is supposed to ensure better quality standards.

 

  1. Statement : Market trends are changing continuously and with increasing competitiveness, the consumers demands with respect to the prices and

quality are gradually increasing.

Assumptions :

  1. Consumers did not care for the prices and quality earlier.
  2. Market competitiveness is not favorable for the consumers.

 

  1. Statement : The company has the right to reject any application form without furnishing any reason while shorting the list of candidates for interview – a condition mentioned in the employment notice.

Assumptions :

  1. It is desirable to call only eligible candidates for interview.
  2. The company believes in following impartial practice in all functions.

Answers

 

1.(a) Only assumption I is implicit in the statement. The instruction was given on the assumption that people tend to be little shy and less objective while writing their self appraisal report.

2.(e) Both assumption I and II are implicit in the statement. Assumption I is clearly implicit in the statement since it is stated that bosses should not be considered as merely sources of reward and punishments. It implies that the bosses are generally considered so. Hence assumption II is also implicit in the statement.

3.(e) Both the assumption I and II are implicit in the statement. Assumption II is clearly implicit in the statement. Assumption I is also implicit because the shopkeeper gives his suggestions on the assumption that the customer will consider it.

4.(d) Assumption I is not implicit. Consumers are paying mere attention to prices and quality product now-a-days does not mean that they were indifferent to these
factors earlier. Assumption II is just the opposite of what is told in the statement. So it is also not implicit.

5.(a) Only assumption I is implicit in the statement. The statement does not imply that all functions of the company are implicit. So assumption II is not implicit.

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Give answer

(A) If only assumption I is implicit
(B) If only assumption II is implicit
(C) If either I or II is implicit
(D) If neither I nor II is implicit
(E) If both I and II are implicit.

1. Statement: “You are hereby appointed as a programmer with a probation period of one year and your performance will be reviewed at the end of the period for confirmation.” – A line in an appointment letter.

Assumptions:
I. The performance of an individual generally is not known at the time of appointment offer.
II. Generally an individual tries to prove his worth in the probation period.

A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

2. Statement: It is desirable to put the child in school at the age of 5 or so.

Assumptions:
I. At that age the child reaches appropriate level of development and is ready to learn.
II. The schools do not admit children after six years of age.

A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

3. Statement: “In order to bring punctuality in our office, we must provide conveyance allowance to our employees.” – In charge of a company tells Personnel Manager.

Assumptions:
I. Conveyance allowance will not help in bringing punctuality.
II. Discipline and reward should always go hand in hand.

A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

4. Statement: Unemployment allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youth above 18 years of age.

Assumptions:
I. There are unemployed youth in India who needs monetary support.
II. The government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all unemployed youth.

A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

5. Statement: “If you trouble me, I will slap you.” – A mother warns her child.

Assumptions:
I. With the warning, the child may stop troubling her.
II. All children are basically naughty.

A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

6. Statement: The State government has decided to appoint four thousand primary school teachers during the next financial year.

Assumptions:
I. There are enough schools in the state to accommodate four thousand additional primary school teachers.
II. The eligible candidates may not be interested to apply as the government may not finally appoint such a large number of primary school teachers.

A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

7. Statement: A warning in a train compartment – “To stop train, pull chain. Penalty for improper use Rs. 500.”

Assumptions:
I. Some people misuse the alarm chain.
II. On certain occasions, people may want to stop a running train.

A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

8. Statement: If it is easy to become an engineer, I don’t want to be an engineer.

Assumptions:
I. An individual aspires to be professional.
II. One desires to achieve a thing which is hard earned.

A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

9. Statement: The concession in rail fares for the journey to hill stations has been cancelled because it is not needed for people who can spend their holidays there.

Assumptions:
I. Railways should give concession only to needy persons.
II. Railways should not encourage people to spend their holidays at hill stations.

A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

10. Statement: “The bridge was built at the cost of Rs. 128 crores and even civil bus service is not utilizing it, what a pity to see it grossly underutilized.” – A citizen’s view on a new flyover linking east and west sides of a suburb.

Assumptions:
I. The building of such bridges does not serve any public objective.
II. There has to be some accountability and utility of money spent on public projects.

A. Only assumption I is implicit
B. Only assumption II is implicit
C. Either I or II is implicit
D. Neither I nor II is implicit
E. Both I and II are implicit

ANSWERS:
1. E
2.A
3.B
4.A
5.A
6.A
7.E
8.B
9.A
10.B

Directions : In each question below a statement (or a passage) is followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken in for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and then decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement. Give answer:

(a) if only assumption I is implicit.

(b) if only assumption II is implicit.

(c) if either assumption I or assumption II is implicit.

(d) if neither of the assumptions is implicit.

(e) if both the assumptions are implicit.

 

  1. Statement : A sentence in the letter to candidates called for written examination – ‘You have to bear your expenses on travel etc.

Assumptions :

  1. If not clarified all the candidates may claim reimbursement of expenses.
  2. Many organisations reimburse expenses on travel to candidates called for written examination.

 

  1. Statement : It is through participative management policy alone that indiscipline in our industries can be contained and quality of life ensured to the workers.

Assumptions :

  1. Quality of life in our industry is better.
  2. Indiscipline results in poor quality of life.

 

  1. Statement :Many people have expressed surprise as the princes has broken the royal tradition of marriage by choosing a commoner as her life partner.

Assumptions :

  1. People expect royal families to observe customs and traditions.
  2. People still value purity of royal blood and status when it comes to a marriage of members of royal family.

 

  1. Statement : The chairman and secretary of the housing society have requested society members to use water economically to help society to save on water-tax.

Assumptions :

  1. Majority of members of the society are likely to follow the request.
  2. It is desirable to reduce expenditure whenever possible.

 

  1. Statement : The economic prosperity of any nation is dependent on the quality of its human resources.

Assumption :

  1. It is possible to measure the quality of human resources of a nation.
  2. Achieving economic prosperity is a cherished goal of every nation.

 

  1. Statement : The campaign of keep your city clean started by the civic council did not evoke any response from the citizen.

Assumptions :

  1. People do not desire to keep their city clean.
  2. The civic council has failed in its campign.

 

  1. Statement : The private bus services in the city has virtually collapsed because of the on going strike of its employees.

Assumptions :

  1. Going on strike has become the right of every employee.
  2. People no more require the services of private bus operators.

 

  1. Statement : The new scheme gives people the opportunity to voluntarily declare their disclosed property and legitimize it by paying the lowest ever

rate of tax.

Assumptions :

  1. The new scheme is much better than the earlier scheme.
  2. People may desire to pay less tax and own things legimately.

 

  1. Statement : An advertisement of a bank “Want to open a bank account ! Just dial our ‘room service’ and we will come at your door steps.”

Assumptions :

  1. There is a section of people who require such service at their home.
  2. Nowadays banking has become very competitive.

 

  1. Statement :Do not copy our software without our permission – A notice

Assumptions :

  1. It is possible to copy the software.
  2. Such warning will have some effect.

Answers

1.(e) It is clearly mentioned in the call letter itself in order to avoid a situation in which the candidates demand for their travelling expenses. So assumption I is implicit. Special mentioning of the fact means that some companies do reimburse the travel expenses.

2.(d) 
Clearly assumption I is not implicit. Indiscipline in industry and poor quality of life for worker are the two problems pointed at in the statement. But it-is not mentioned that one is the cause of other. So assumption II is also not implicit.

3. (e) 
As the people surprise the fact that the princes has married a commoner , i.e, a person not of her status and ‘not’ of royal blood’ suggest that assumptions I and II are implicit.

4. (e) 
When a notice is issued it is expected that the people for which it is issued will pay attention to it. Also the theme of the statement is desirable. Here the theme is reduction of tax, which can be constructed as reduction in expenditure. Hence, the required answer is 5.

5. (a) 
Since the statement itself says that economic prosperity is measured by the quality of its human resources, we can say that assumption I is implicit. However, assumption II leaves much to be desired for.

6. (b) 
The people were not enthused by the campaign does not imply that people do not want to keep their city clean. Thus assumption I is not implicit. Also the main notice. Of the campaign was to involve as many citizens as possible to keep the city clean but it failed to achieve its stipulated target. Thus assumption II is implicit.

7.(d) 
Assumption I is not at all related to the statement just because private bus operators have gone on strike does not mean that every employee has a right to go for strike (even though it may be true legally, but it is not relevant in this statement). Assumption II is totally irrelevant, hence both the assumptions are not implicit.

8.(b)
 Since nothing has been said about the earlier scheme or law so we cannot say about the efficiency of the new scheme. Thus assumption I is not implicit. The highlight of the scheme is that people may retain their property by paying lowest ever rate of tax. Thus it can be safely assumed that people desire to pay less tax and own things legally. Thus assumption II is implicit. Hence the required answer is (2).

9.(a) 
The advertisement is published with a view to attract customers. Unless and until there exists a section of people who require such kind of services, the bank would not have published the advertisement. The assumption I is implicit. But from the statement we can not assume that banking has became competitive (though we can definitely draw the above said as inference). Hence, the required answer (1).

10.(e) 
Both the assumptions are implicit. If it was not possible to copy the software, such statement would not have made. The warning is given because it may have some effect. Thus assumptions I and II are implicit.

Directions (1-5): In each of the questions below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and following assumptions and decided which of the assumption is implicit for the statement.

Give answer (1) if only assumption I is implicit.

Give answer (2) if only assumption II is implicit.

Give answer (3) if either assumption I or assumption II is implicit.

Give answer (4) if neither assumption I nor assumption II is implicit.

Give answer (5) if both assumptions I and assumption II are implicit

  1. Statement:Many people fell ill after consuming meal at a wedding reception and were rushed to the nearby govt. or private hospital.

Assumption I: The relatives of the affected people may refuse to take them to the Govt. hospitals.
Assumption II: 
The nearby hospitals may be able to attend to all the affected people.

 

  1. Statement:The govt. has recently announced an incentive package for setting up new business ventures in the rural areas and promised uninterrupted power supply to all the units.

Assumption I: The govt. may be able to supply adequate power to all such units.

Assumption II: People living in the rural areas may welcome the govt. decision.

 

  1. Statement:The municipal authority blocked movement of traffic in and around the temple on the main festival day.
    Assumption I: 
    Very large number of devotees may visit the temple on the main festival day.

Assumption II: People travelling to the areas near the temple may postpone their journey by a day unless they have very urgent work in that area.

 

  1. Statement:The govt. has instructed all the private schools in the city to maintain the current fees for at least two more years.

Assumption I: The authorities of private schools may not follow the govt. instruction as they are not dependent on the govt. fund.

Assumption II: The parents of the students of the private schools of the city may still be eager to pay higher fee.

 

  1. Statement: The end of a financial year is the ideal time to take a look at the performance of various companies.

     Assumption I: All the companies take such review at the end of a financial year.

Assumption II: The performance data of various companies is

available

ANSWERS WITH EXPLANATION:

  1. (2)
    Assumptions I is absurd. In such illnesses, the patients are rushed to hospitals, irrespective of how the relatives may behave. II is implicit in rushing the affected people to the nearby hospitals.
  2. (5)
    When a promise is made by someone, they assume that they would be able to fulfill it. Hence I is implicit. Since the business venture are planned to be set up in rural areas, II must be implicit
  3. (5)
    I is implicit as the cause of blocking the traffic. II is implicit because whenever we plan something, we assume that the conditions. We assume that the conditions may be favorable enough.
  4. (4)
    Whenever an instruction is given, it is assumed that it may be followed. Hence I is not implicit. II is also not implicit. If at all the govt does assume something about the parents, it is to the contrary: that the parents may not be able to pay higher fees.
  5. (5)
    Since both I and II follow from the given statement, so both are implicit

 

Directions (Q.1-5): In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit the statement. 

Give answer

  1. a) If only Assumption I is implicit
  2. b) If only Assumption II is implicit 
  3. c) If either Assumption I or Assumption II is implicit 
  4. d) If neither Assumption I nor Assumption II is implicit 
  5. e) If both Assumption I and II are implicit 

 

  1. Statement: The largest domestic airlines corporation has announced new summer schedules in which more number of flights in trunk routes are introduced.

Assumptions: 

  1. More number of passengers may travel by this airlines corporation during summer months in trunk routes.

II.Other airlines companies may also increase the number of flights in all the sectors.

Answer: (a) Without passengers, the increase would make no sense. Hence I is implicit. II may be a probable reason but not a necessary one for the increase.

 

  1. Statement:The chairman of the company decided to hold a grand function to celebrate silver jubilee during the next weekend and invited a large number of guests.

Assumptions:

  1. The company officials may be able to make all the necessary preparations for the silver jubilee celebration.

II.Majority of the guests invited by the chairman may attend the function.

Answer:(e) I is implicit: you don’t hold a function without being ready for the preparations. II is also positive: when you invite someone, you assume that he will come.

 

  1. Statement: The largest computer manufacturing company slashed the prices of most of the desktop models by about 15 per cent with immediate effect.

Assumptions:

  1. The company may incur heavy losses due to reduction in prices of the desktop.

II.The sales of desktop manufactured by the company may increase substantially in the near future.

Answer:(b) Price have been slashed with the assumption that sales will increase, thus leading to profit.

 

  1. Statement: The school authority decided to rent out the school premises during weekends and holidays for organizing various functions to augment its resources to meet the growing needs of the school.

Assumptions:

  1. The parents of the school students may protest against the decision of the school authority.

II.There may not be enough demand for hiring the school permission for organizing functions.

Answer:(d) Both of these assumptions are negative.

 

  1. Statements:The local civic body has urged all the residents to voluntarily reduce consumption of potable water by about 30 per cent to tide over the water crisis.

Assumptions:

  1. Many residents may reduce consumption of potable water.

II.Many activists may welcome the civic body’s more and spread awareness among residents.

Answer:(a) A request is made to the people with the assumption that they would comply. Hence I is implicit. II talks of activists and is hence beyond the scope of the statement.

 

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