Directions (1-15): Each of the following questions has a paragraph from which a sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the sentence that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.
Q1. India’s first Partition Museum opens 70 years after the Radcliffe line came into effect, dividing Amritsar from Lahore, Chittagong from Kolkata, India from Pakistan, and turning the moment of independence from colonial rule into a bloody massacre. Nearly 15 million crossed this imaginary line, Hindus and Sikhs fleeing to India, Muslims to Pakistan. For 70 years, that border has run through us, and within us.
Through 5,000 personal objects donated by those displaced by Partition letters and manuscripts, a coat salvaged from ruin, a refugee registration card the museum aims to acknowledge the momentous loss of life and amity in 1947, especially in Punjab, which neither India nor Pakistan have quite looked in the eye. ____________Hindus had slaughtered Muslims, Muslims Hindus, in a carnage of spectacular proportions. India, as a republic in the making, a secular nation where all citizens were equal, could not bear to remember the violence that midwifed its freedom.
(a)violence that midwifed its freedom. letter and manuscripts, a coat salvaged.
(b)Muslims to Pakistan , border that has run through us, momentous loss
(c) Even more unacknowledged has been the displacement in Bengal. Immediately after Independence, unsurprisingly, both countries turned towards the task of nation-building and survival, rather than look back in anger and sorrow. Moreover, unlike in Germany after the WW II, blame wasn’t easily apportioned.
(d)more unacknowledged has been displacing in Bengal.
(e)Nearly 15 million crossed this imaginary line, blame wasn’t easily apportioned.
Sol. Option C is the correct choice as it gives the coherent meaning to the passage.
Even more unacknowledged has been the displacement in Bengal. Immediately after Independence, unsurprisingly, both countries turned towards the task of nation-building and survival, rather than look back in anger and sorrow. Moreover, unlike in Germany after the WW II, blame wasn’t easily apportioned.
Q2. Most people at their first consultation take a furtive look at the surgeon’s hands in the hope of reassurance. Prospective patients look for delicacy, sensitivity, steadiness, perhaps unblemished pallor. On this basis, Henry loses a number of cases each year. Generally, he knows it is about to happen before the patient does: the downward glance repeated, the prepared questions beginning to falter, the overemphatic thanks during the retreat to the door.________
(a) Other people do not communicate due to their poor observation.
(b) Other patients do not like what they see but are ignorant of their right to go elsewhere.
(c) But himself is not concerned.
(d) But others will take their place, he thought.
(e) let the defectors go along the corridor or across town.
Sol. Option B is the correct choice
Q3. Trade protectionism, disguised as concern for the climate, is raising its head. Citing competitiveness concerns, powerful industrialized countries are holding out threats of a Levy on imports of energy-intensive products from de countries that refuse to accept their demands, The actual source of protectionist sentiment in the OECD countries is, of course, their current lackluster economic performance, combined with the challenges posed by the rapid economic rise of China and India in that order.________
(a) Climate change is evoked to bring trade protectionism through the back door.
(b) OECD countries are taking refuge in climate change issues to erect trade bathers against these two countries.
(c) Climate change concerns have come as a convenient stick to beat the rising trade power of China and India.
(d) Defenders of the global economic status quo are position as climate change champions.
(e)New commitments would result in a slowdown of our development and poverty reduction programs
Sol. Option D is the correct choice.
Q4. Mattancherry is Indian Jewry’s most famous settlement. It’s pretty streets of pastel colored houses, connected by first-floor passages and home to the last twelve saree-and-sarong-wearing, white-skinned Indian Jews are visited by thousands of tourists each year. Its synagogue, built in 1568, with a floor of blue-and-white Chinese tiles, a carpet given by Haile Selassie and the frosty Yeheh selling tickets at the door, stands as an image of religious tolerance.
(a) Mattancherry represents, therefore, the perfect picture of peaceful co-existence.
(b) India’s Jews have almost never suffered discrimination, except for European colonizers and each other.
(c) Jews in India were always tolerant.
(d) Religious tolerance has always been only a façade and nothing more
(e) Religious tolerance represents, therefore, the perfect picture. Pastel colored houses.
Sol.Statement D is out of context.Statement E is not in sync with the overall theme. B is the best concluding statement.
Q5. Given the cultural and intellectual interconnections, the question of what is ‘Western’ and what is ‘Eastern’ (or ‘Indian’) is often hard to decide, and the issue can be discussed only in more dialectical terms. The diagnosis of a thought as ‘purely Western’ or ‘purely Indian’ can be very illusory.
(a) Thought are not the kind of things that can be easily categorized.
(b) Though ‘occidentalizm’ and ‘orientalism’ as dichotomous concepts have found many adherents.
(c) ‘East is East and West is West’ has been a discredited notion for a long time now.
(d) The origin of a thought is not the kind of thing to which ‘purity’ happens easily.
(e) compartmentalizing thoughts is often desirable
Sol. E is contracting to the main theme of the passage.
Option B is not properly concluding the paragraph.
Option D is the correct choice as it concludes the paragraph properly and maintaining coherent meaning.
Q6. The audiences for crosswords and Sudoku, understandably, overlap greatly, but there are differences, too. A crossword attracts a more literary person, while Sudoku appeals to a keenly logical mind. Some crossword enthusiasts turn up their noses at Sudoku because they feel it lacks depth. A good crossword requires vocabulary, knowledge, mental flexibility and sometimes even a sense of humor to complete. It touches numerous areas of life and provides an ‘Aha!’ or two along the way.____________
(a) Sudoku, on the other hand, is just a logical exercise, each one similar to the last.
(b) Sudoku, incidentally, is growing faster in popularity than crosswords, even among the literati.
(c) Sudoku, on the other hand, can be attempted and enjoyed even by children.
(d) Sudoku, however, is not exciting in any sense of the term.
(e) Sudoku, whereas, gives better enthusiasm
Sol. Option (a) is the answer. The paragraph, in the beginning, highlights the main points of difference between Sudoku and a crossword. Therefore, we are looking for a contrast, which is not present in options (b) and (d). Option (c) is too specific, which is why we pick Option (a).
Q7. Most firms consider expert individuals to be too elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. Force such people to collaborate on the high-stakes project and they just might come to fisticuffs. Even the very notion of managing such a group seems unimaginable. So most organizations fall into default mode, setting up project teams of people who get along nicely.
(a) The result, however, is disastrous.
(b) The result is mediocrity.
(c) The result is the creation of experts who then become elitists.
(d) Naturally, they drive innovations.
(e) The result has no pattern.
Sol. Option (b) is the answer. The paragraph begins by pointing out the difficulties of the expert individual. Towards the end, it mentions a compromise that organizations come up with, which is the setting up of teams of people who get along. Hence a sentence that follows would be a conclusion of sorts, which is present in options (a), (b) and (c). Option (c) can be eliminated, as the experts are already considered elitists. Also, we have no reason to believe that such a measure would bring about disastrous results. Hence, option (a) can be eliminated. However, mediocrity is an outcome that can be expected, which is why we pick Option (b) as the answer.
Q8. Federer’s fifth grand slam win prompted a reporter to ask whether he was the best ever. Federer is certainly not lacking in confidence, but he was not about to proclaim himself the best ever. ‘The best player of this generation, yes’, he said, ‘But nowhere close to ever. Just look at the records that some guys have. I’m a minnow.’
(a) His win against Agassi, a genius from the previous generation, contradicts that.
(b) Sampras, the king of an earlier generation, was as humble.
(c) He is more than a minnow to his contemporaries.
(d) The difference between ‘the best of this generation’ and ‘the best ever’ is a matter of perception.
(e) But fifth grand slam was close enough
Sol. Option C is the correct choice.
Q9. Thus, the end of knowledge and the closing of the frontier that it symbolizes is not a looming crisis at all, but merely one of many embarrassing fits of hubris in civilization’s long industry. In the end, it will pass away and be forgotten. Ours is not the first generation to struggle to understand the organizational laws of the frontier, deceive itself that it has succeeded, and go to its grave having failed.One would be wise to be humble, like the Irish fisherman observing quietly that the sea was so wide and his boat so small.______
(a) One would be wise to be humble.
(b)The wildness we all need to live, grow, and define ourselves is alive and well, and its glorious laws are all around.
(c) But we might be the first generation to deal with the crisis.
(d) However, this time the success is not illusory.
(e) thus, the crisis is illusory
Sol. B is the most appropriate choice. Option (c) is wrong as ours is not the first generation to deal with the crisis, others have also dealt with it. 2 is correct as we might be the first generation to succeed. 1 does not make any sense. 4 is wrong as success was not illusory earlier as well.
Q10. In response to growing workforce concerns regarding work-life balance (WLB), organizations increasingly offer initiatives intended to facilitate the combination of employees’ work responsibilities with their non-work commitments. Research shows that providing initiatives valued by employees enhances perceptions of organizational support, affective commitment to the organization, and reciprocation in the form of increased task and contextual performance. (_______). Another unintended effect of initiative implementation is the potential for ‘backlash’ from childfree employees, who may believe that WLB initiatives target parents and result in increased workloads for those not using them. Consequently, the benefits of WLB initiatives, such as increased organizational commitment, improved performance, and reduced turnover, may only be realized if staff are aware of the initiatives on offer and feel able to use them.
A) Using a mixed-methods approach, the present study investigates the relationship between employees’ fairness perceptions of organizational WLB initiatives and CWB, and explores the moderating role of individual differences.
B) However, imperfect implementation of WLB initiatives often results in employees having little knowledge of the provisions on offer and/or unequal access to the programs within organizations
C) This suggests that employees who are dissatisfied with the fairness of their employer’s procedures for allocating WLB initiatives, or with the honesty or comprehensiveness of the explanations provided regarding initiative use, may reciprocate with organizationally oriented CWB.
D) These are followed by reactions to the stressors: psychological, physical or behavioral job strains. Behavioural strains enable individuals to cope with stressors, either by decreasing the emotions elicited by the stressor or by removing the stressor itself
E) Dispositional characteristics appear to have the capacity to modify the social exchange relationship, by influencing employees’ responses to environmental factors such as organizational justice.
Sol.The next statement after the blank gives an idea that the previous sentence i.e the blank also talks about some unintended effect.
Q11.The appeal of the insurgents’ model is partly a result of the growing dissatisfaction with the public company. True, the best public companies are remarkable organizations. They strike a balance between quarterly results (which keep them sharp) and long-term investments (which keep them growing). They produce a stream of talented managers and innovative products. They can mobilize talent and capital. (____________). One reason is that managers tend to put their own interests first. The shareholder-value revolution of the 1980s was supposed to solve this by incentivizing managers to think like owners, but it backfired. Loaded up with stock options, managers acted like hired guns instead, massaging the share price so as to boost their incomes.
A) Basically even after such a long time, public company continues its dominance in the arena.
B) The rise of big financial institutions has further weakened the link between the people who nominally own companies and the companies themselves.
C) Conflicting interests, short-termism, and regulation all impose costs.
D) But, after a century of utter dominance, the public company is showing signs of wear.
E) But the most interesting alternative to public companies is a new breed of high-potential start-ups.
Sol. The next sentence after the blank gives a reason for something and the supporting points tells that something negative has been said in the blank (like supposed to solve this.. backfired…). So option D) is best suited
Q12.Trading with China is doubly beneficial: both for the British economy and by binding China into the Western system of international rules.(________). If they return to China with a better understanding that stability and prosperity—China’s oft-stated goals—do not require omnipresent police, thugs and spies, that is all for the good. So it makes sense to facilitate visas and to help train Chinese judges.
A) China’s intentions towards the rest of the world are hard to fathom.
B) More than 150,000 Chinese are studying in Britain; a similar number come annually as tourists.
C) A lot of Chinese people have migrated to Britain illegally and live there for illegal business expansion
D) With increasing globalization, China has expanded its business to Britain.
E) For Britain, and all Western democracies, the dilemma is over how to deal cordially and profitably with China.
Sol. The next sentence says that IF THEY RETURNED….both B) and C) fit the blank, but the sense here is positive, So B) is the best-suited answer.
Q13.Mental illness is often stigmatized. (______________________________). It is not as obviously fatal as many physical illnesses. But it still takes a heavy human and economic toll. That is why it is important that politicians make good on their promises—and that ordinary people dig deep, too.
A) Though the brain is extraordinarily complex, further scientific breakthroughs can be expected.
B) Post-traumatic stress disorder was only defined in 1980; understanding of that condition has jumped forward in the past few years, as have the treatments for it.
C) Past investigations into early interventions in psychosis have since repaid themselves many times over.
D) Many illnesses afflict the old disproportionately, but mental illness tends to strike the young, undermining productivity.
E) It lacks an effective lobby to match the groups that represent victims of cancer and heart disease.
Sol. In the next statement after the blank, mental illness is compared with physical illness and is said that politicians and people should take this matter seriously. Now in option E) also mental illness is compared with cancer and heart disease that are physical illness and it is said that it lacks effective lobby to match.. lobby- attempts.
Q14.A decade ago a group of alarmed authors sued Google, claiming the service cut into their copyrights. (____________). The plaintiffs appealed to the Second Circuit Court in New York. On October 16th, they were rebuffed again. How can a company get away with digitizing millions of books without the authors’ consent and showing them to the world? In his ruling, Judge Pierre Leval explained that copyright law gives “potential creators” the exclusive right to copy their own work in order to expand everybody’s “access to knowledge”. It is not all about enriching authors. The “ultimate, primary intended beneficiary”, he wrote, “is the public.”
.A) After years of legal machinations, a federal district court ruled in favour of the internet giant in 2013.
B) Besides, if the work is put to a “transformative purpose”, it counts as permissible “fair use” under the Copyright Act of 1976.
C) The “purpose of Google’s copying of the original copyrighted books”, the ruling reads, “is to make available significant information about those books, permitting a searcher to identify those that contain a word or term of interest.”
D) Google was issued a notice to remove all the books and to upload them after taking consent from the respective author.
E) Google has teamed up with libraries to scan over 20m titles—many of them out of print—and put them on the web for all to view.
Sol. The last line gives the meaning that the ruling was in favor of google. So A) is correct
Q15.(___________). After all, most want to make a profit. They work in a well-oiled, thriving criminal industry. Their operations involve partnerships, specializations, and supply chains. These criminal enterprises often share information with each other when it is mutually beneficial, but at other times compete to attack the most profitable targets. Rather than thinking of a clandestine hacker working out of a basement, you will be better served to picture a sophisticated, professional operation working out of an office tower. To strengthen your digital resilience, adopt a competitor’s mindset.
.A) Protecting yourself from a breach can be daunting, given how many emails pass through your organization each week.But if you think of cyber criminals as a business, you can keep up with them more effectively.
B) These broad phishing attacks are not targeted. It’s a volume play, as any strategist would recognize, and it preys on our shared human weaknesses.
C) Before you can mitigate your organization’s security risks, it’s important to understand how email gets companies in trouble.
D) Impersonation attacks are even more specialized spear-phishing attacks, ones that occur when attackers pose as an individual you know and trust.
E) To gain this trust, a cyber criminal will mine information so they can credibly assume that person’s identity.
Sol. In the whole passage once the word hacker is mentioned. The author describes them as a very professional person. So Option D) is best suited and acts as an introduction.